DNA sequence-specific reading by echinomycin: role of hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions

TitleDNA sequence-specific reading by echinomycin: role of hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1994
AuthorsGallego, J, Luque FJ, Orozco M, Burgos C, Alvarez-Builla J, Rodrigo MM, Gago F
JournalJournal of medicinal chemistry
Pagination1602 - 1609
Date Published1994/05/27/
Keywords2-Aminopurine/analogs & derivatives; Base Composition; Base Sequence; Binding Sites; Chemistry, Molecular; Molecular Sequence Data; Nucleic Acid Conformation; Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/chemistry/metabolism; Physicochemical Phenomena; Quinoxalines/metabolism; Thermodynamics, Physical; DNA/chemistry/metabolism; Deoxyribonuclease I; Echinomycin/metabolism; Electrochemistry; Hydrogen Bonding; Hypoxanthine; Hypoxanthines; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Models
AbstractThe binding of echinomycin to DNA hexamers of the form GpApXpZpTpC, where the central XpZ step can be CpG, TpA, GpC, or ApT, has been studied by molecular modeling and molecular mechanics techniques. Interaction energies have also been calculated for the complexation of echinomycin with sequences containing the preferred central CpG step and different flanking base pairs. Besides, two more sets of sequences incorporating either 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) or hypoxanthine in place of adenine or guanine, respectively, have been examined. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relative importance of hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions in the association of echinomycin with DNA and further rationalize the experimental evidence. The results of these calculations are in consonance with available data from footprinting experiments and appear to support our previous hypothesis that, in addition to the crucial intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the central region, the stacking interactions involving the quinoxaline-2-carboxamide chromophores of the drug and the DNA base pairs play an important role in modulating the binding specificity of this bisintercalating antitumor antibiotic. This is most clearly seen when sequences with similar minor-groove environments are compared (e.g. CpI vs TpA or CpG vs TpDAP). The dipole moment of N-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxamide has been measured (mu = 4.15 +/- 0.03 D) and compares very well with the calculated value (mu = 4.14 D). The fact that G:C, I:C, A:T, and DAP:T base pairs are shown to be endowed with distinct van der Waals and electrostatic stacking properties with respect to this heteroaromatic ring system could have important implications for the design of novel DNA mono- and bis-intercalating agents.