Aarts, R. and L. Verrhoeven (1999). "Literacy Attained in a Second Language Submersion Context." Applied Psycholinguistics 20(3): 377-394.

            The purpose of this study was to describe the first and second language literacy levels of a sample of 222 Turkish children living in the Netherlands and to identify the factors that are related to individual variation in their literacy performance. Measures of both school literacy and functional literacy were taken in the target languages, Turkish and Dutch. Data of monolingual control groups were used as benchmarks. To explore individual variation in biliteracy scores, background characteristics originating from the child, the family, and the school were examined. The results of the study indicated that the children in the Netherlands attained lower levels of literacy than their monolingual peers. The level of biliteracy of the children in the Netherlands turned out to be primarily related to the factors of home stimulation, parents' motivation for schooling, and children's self-esteem.


Abu-Rabia, -. S. (1998). "The Influence of the Israel-Arab Conflict on Israeli-Jewish Students Learning Arabic as a Third Language." Language,-Culture-and-Curriculum 11(2): 154-164.

            The attitudes of 100 Israeli-Jewish students toward learning Arabic and coexistence with Arabs within Israel were investigated, as was their evaluation of characters they read about in familiar and unfamiliar texts. The students were found to possess low instrumental and low indoors integrative motivation, but their army service motivation and outdoors integrative motivation were high


Baker, C. and S. Prys Jones, Eds. (1998). Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.

            This encyclopedia is divided into three sections: individual bilingualism; bilingualism in  society and bilingual education. It includes many pictures, graphs, maps and diagrams. The  book concludes with a comprehensive bibliography on bilingualism.



 Part 1 Individual bilingualism  - what is a bilingual?  - bilingualism and the family  - the everyday use of bilinguals  - bilingualism and thinking  - measurement of bilingualism  

Part 2 Bilingualism in society  - bilingualism in communities  - how many languages are there in the world? - languages in contact, the mapping of  languages in the world, presentation of language maps  - language change  - language planning and evolution  - bilingualism and culture  - bilingualism and politics  

Part 3 Bilingual education  - the aims of bilingual education  - weak forms of bilingual education  - strong forms of bilingual education  - bilingual education and the community  - bilingual education in the United States  - bilingual education for students with special needs  - bilingual education for the deaf and hearing impaired  - language awareness  - multiculturalism in education  - the bilingual classroom  - factors affecting second language acquisition  - second language learning in the classroom


Blackledge, A., Ed. (1994). Teaching Bilingual Children. Staffordshire, England, Trentham Books Limited.


Blue, G. M. (1993). Language and Success: Lessons To and From the United States. Language, Learning and Success: Studying through English. G. M. Blue. London and Basingstoke, Macmillan Publishers Limited: 12-24.


Blue, G. M., Ed. (1993). Language, Learning and Success: Studying through English. Developments in ELT. Modern English Publications in association with the British Council. London and Basingstoke, Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Bot, K. d. (1992). "A Bilingual Production Model:Levelt's 'Speaking' Model Adapted." Applied Linguistics 13(1): 1-23.

            In this article a description is given of a model of the bilingual speaker. The model presented is based on Levelt's (1989)  'Speaking' model, which sketches a framework in which a number of (highly autonomous) information processing components  are postulated. The main characteristics of the model are that it is incremental and parallel, and that lower level processing is  more automatised than higher level processing. An attempt is made to adapt the Levelt model for bilingual processing. Given the  firm empirical basis of the (monolingual) version of the model, it was intended to change the model as little as possible. It is  concluded that the first component, the conceptualizer, is probably partly language-specific and partly language-independent.  Further it is hypothesised that there are different formulators for each language, while there is one lexicon where lexical elements  from different languages are stored together. The output of the formulators is sent to the articulator which makes use of a large  set of non-language specific speech motor plans.    The adapted version of Levelt's model appears to provide a good explanation of various aspects of language production,  especially with respect to code-switching and the storage and retrieval of lexical elements, and it may suggest a useful direction  to take in future research on language processing in bilinguals.


Brown, D., R. L. Larson, et al. (1997). "Annotated Bibliography of Research in the Teaching of English." Research in the Teaching of English.

            Twice a year, in the May and December issues, RTE publishes a selected bibliography of recent research in the teaching of English. Most of the studies listed appeared during the six-month period preceding the compilation of the bibliography (January through June, 1997, for the present bibliography), but some studies that appeared earlier are occasionally included. The listing is selective; it makes no attempt to include all research and research-related studies that appeared in the period under review. Comments on the bibliography and suggestions about items for inclusion may be directed to the bibliography editors


Carlisle, R. S. (1989). "The Writing of Anglo and Hispanic Elementary School Students in Bilingual, Submersion, and Regular Programs." Studies in Second Language Acquisition 11: 257-280.


Cenoz, J. (1996). Learning a Third Language: Basque, Spanish and English. Spanish in Contact: Issues in Bilingualism. A. Roca, & Jensen, John B. Somerville, Cascadilla: 13-27.

            The role of bilingualism in the acquisition of English in the Basque region of northern Spain is analysed. Monolingual Spanish-speaking & bilingual Basque/Spanish secondary students aged 17-19 (N = 154 & 166, respectively) who had studied English in school were administered questionnaires, language & intelligence tests, & recorded interviews in both English & their first language to assess intelligence, socio-economic status, attitudes toward learning English, motivation, & exposure to English. The hypothesis that the bilingual students would achieve higher results on English-language proficiency tests than their monolingual peers was confirmed. Significant effects of bilingualism were found on four of five measures, i.e., listening, speaking, writing, & vocabulary/grammar. No significant effect on reading ability was observed. Proposals that intelligence & motivation play crucial roles in second-language acquisition were also supported. 5 Tables, 5 Figures, 43 References.


Cenoz, J. (1998). Multilingual Education in the Basque Country. Beyond Bilingualism. Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. J. Cenoz and F. Genesee. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters: 175-191.


Cenoz, J. and F. Genesee, Eds. (1998). Beyond Bilingualism. Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.


Cenoz, J. and D. Lindsay (1994). "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds." Language and Education 8(4): 201-210.

            Described is a project carried out in 30 primary schools in the Basque Country during the academic year 1992/93, introducing English as a foreign language to 8-year-olds. The situation of teaching primary English in the Basque Country is outlined, as well as the aims & implementation of the project. General attitudes toward the project, the process of teacher development, & the progress in language learning were evaluated through videotaped classroom observations, questionnaires, & listening comprehension (LC) & oral tests (N = 368 LC & 142 oral test takers). Remarks are made concerning the implications of the project. 31 References. Adapted from the source document


Cenoz, J. and D. Lindsay (1994). "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (28th, Baltimore, MD, March 8-12, 1994." ERIC Database(ED372637).

            A project introducing English as a third language in 30 elementary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) is described. The program, emerging from a national curriculum reform effort, begins English instruction when students are eight years old, three years earlier than previously. Students are already bilingual in Spanish and Basque, both official languages, and some feel that because the two languages are not related, students experience some confusion in learning both. Addition of a third, also unrelated language is seen as a special challenge in this area. At the program's inception in 1992, the University of the Basque Country was designated as the co-ordinating institution. Teachers were trained in English language instruction in the United Kingdom and had regular meetings for discussing instructional issues and exchanging ideas. An activity-based and thematic syllabus evolved from this process. Program co-ordinators observed classrooms several times a year. A formative evaluation used observation, an attitude survey of teachers, parents, and administrators, a teacher survey, and English language testing. Results suggest the program fostered a favourable attitude toward English language teaching, highlight the important role of the teacher, and provided a significant opportunity for teacher development. Areas for improvement were also identified.

A bibliography is included


Clyne, M. and P. Cassia (1999). "Trilingualism, immigration and relatedness of language." ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 123-124: 57-78.


Cots, J. and L. Nussbaum (2001). "L'aprenentatge de llengües estrangeres en un context multilingüe i pluricultural." Escola Catalana 377(XXXVI): 10-14.


Crandall, J. (1992). "Content-Centered Learning in the United States." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 13: 111-127.




Program models

Instructional Strategies and Techniques:

1. Cooperative learning and other grouping strategies

2. Task-based or experiential learning

3. Whole language strategies

4. Graphic organisers

It contains annotated bibliography


Crandall, J. and G. R. Tucker (1990). Content-Based Instruction in Second and Foreign Languages. London, Sage Publications.


Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood Bilingualism and Metalinguistic Skills: Analysis and Control in Young Swedish-English Bilinguals." Applied Psycholinguistics 20(1): 1-20.

            Several scholars have claimed that childhood bilingualism may enhance development of linguistic  awareness. In the present investigation, metalinguistic ability is studied in terms of the dual skill  components outlined by Bialystok and Ryan (1985): control of linguistic processing and analysis of  linguistic knowledge. A total of 38 English-Swedish bilinguals, assigned to two groups according to  relative proficiency, and 16 Swedish monolinguals, all aged 6 to 7 years, received three tasks: symbol  substitution, grammaticality judgement, and grammaticality correction. Effects of general bilingualism  were found on tasks requiring a high control of linguistic processing, thus replicating previous findings.  The results indicated that a high degree of bilinguality may also enhance the development of linguistic  analysis. Moreover, it was found that certain metalinguistic skills - especially control of processing -  were more readily applied in the subjects' weaker language.


Cumming, A. H. (1994). Bilingual performance in reading and writing. Ann Arbor

Amsterdam ; Philadelphia, Published at the University of Michigan; Distributed by J. Benjamins Pub.Editedited by Alister H. Cumming.

Collection of previously published articles.

Awareness of text structure : effect on recall / Patricia L. Carrell -- Second-language readers' memory for narrative texts / Yukie Horiba, Paul W. van den Broek, and Charles R. Fletcher -- The relationship between first- and second-language reading comprehension of occupation-specific texts / Janet Donin and Maria Silva -- Phonological recoding in the first- and second-language reading of skilled bilinguals / Norman Segalowitz and Martine Hebert -- Language proficiency, writing ability, and composing strategies / Ann Raimes -- Writing expertise and second-language proficiency / Alister Cumming -- Effects of first language on second-language writing / Hiroe Kobayashi and Carol Rinnert -- Evidence of transfer and loss in developing second-language writers / Joan Eisterhold Carson and Phyllis A. Kuehn -- Orality-literacy and group differences in second-language acquisition / Lynne Hansen-Strain -- Effects on ESL reading of teaching cultural content schemata / Pamela Floyd and Patricia L. Carrell -- Acquiring literacy in a second language : the effect of book-based programs / Warwick B. Elley.


Cummins, J. (1980). "The Cross-Lingual Dimensions of Language Proficiency: Implications for Bilingual Education and the Optimal Age Issue." Tesol Quarterly 14(2): 175-187.

            It is argued that a dimension of cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP) can be empirically distinguished from interpersonal communicative skills such as accent and oral fluency in both L1 and L2, and that cognitive/ academic proficiencies in both L1 and L2 are manifestations of the same underlying dimensions. This analysis of language proficiency and its cross-lingual dimensions is applied to the interpretation of data on the effects of bilingual education programs and on the age issue in second language learning.


The success of French immersion programs for majority language anglophone children in Canada and elsewhere is well documented (Swain 1978) and need not be considered in detail. Briefly, evaluations have consistently shown than children instructed mainly through French in the early grades suffer no adverse academic or cognitive consequences and catch up with regular program comparison groups in English language skills shortly after formal  English language arts are introduced (usually about grade 2 or 3). Many investigators have remarked on the rapid transfer of reading skills from French to English (Genesee, 1979, Lambert& Tucker 1972). This transfer is clearly what would be predicted on the basis of the interdependence hypothesis.


Evaluations of bilingual education programs for minority language children demonstrate a very similar transfer of language skills across languages. Fore example, several studies involving minority francophone students in Canada show that instruction through French (l1) is just as effective in promoting English proficiency as instruction through English.


The findings of a longitudinal evaluation of the bilingual program for Navajo students at Rock Point (Rosier & Farella 1976) in which all initial literacy skills were taught in Navajo, showed that by grade 5 and 6, students were performing at the National U.S. norm in English reading. Prior to the institution of the bilingual program, students at Rock Point were two years below the norm in English reading despite intensive ESL instruction in the school. Troike (1978) has reviewed findings from other bilingual programs which showed that minority students performed as well or better in English skills compared to students in English-only programs

In these programs for minority language children as well as in immersion programs for majority children, instruction through the minority language has been effective in promoting proficiency in both languages. These findings support the interdependence hypothesis; in both instances the instruction is effective in promoting CALP which will manifest itself in both languages, given adequate motivation and exposure to both languages either in school or wider environment


Four points have been made: (1) CALP is a reliable dimension of individual differences which is central to scholastic success and which can be empirically distinguished from interpersonal communicative skills in both L1 and L2; 2) The same dimension underlies cognitive academic proficiency in both L1 and L2, i.e., L1 and L2 CALP are interdependent; 3) Older learner acquire L2 CALP more rapidly than younger learners because L1 CALP is better developed; and 4) To the extent that instruction through Lx is effective in developing Lx CALP, it will l also develop Ly CALP provided there is adequate exposure  Ly and motivation to learn Ly since the same dimension underlies performance in both languages



Cummins, J. (1992). "Bilingualism and Second Language Learning." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 13: 51-71.


Cummins, J. (forhtcoming). "Tests, Achievement and Bilingual Students."

            available on line


Cummins, J. (forthcoming). "Rossell and Baker: Their Case for Effectiveness of Bilingual Education."

            available on line


Cummins, J. (forthoming). Beyond Adversarial Discourse: Searching for Common Ground in the Education of Bilingual Students. The Politics of Multiculturalism: Students and Teachers in the Crossfire. C. Ovando and P. McLaren, McGraw Hill.

            Presentation to the California State Board of Education. February 9, 1998. Sacramento California available on line


Cummins, J. and M. Swain (1998). Bilingualism in Education. Malaysia, Longman.


Duke University (1998). Appendix B: Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum.


Eggen, P. D. and D. P. Kauchak (1996). Strategies for Teachers. Teaching Content and Thinking Skills. Boston, Allyn and Bacon. A Simon & Schuster Company.


Fairchild, H. H. and A. M. Padilla (1990). Innovations in Foreign Language Education: Contributions from Bilingual Education. London, Sage Publications.


Freeman, R. (989). Bilingual Education and Social Change. Clevedon, UK, Multilingual Matters.


Fruhauf, G., D. Coyle, et al., Eds. (1996). Teaching Content in a Foreign Language. Practice and Perspective in European Bilingual Education. Alkmaar, Stichting Europrint.


Fuller, J. M. (1999). "Between Three Languages: Composite Structure and Interlanguage." Applied Linguistics 20(4): 534-561.


 Genesee, F. (2000). "Bilingualism." Language and Cognition 3(3): 167-172.


Gooden Jones, E. M. (1996). Developing Writing Proficiency through Cooperative Learning Strategies in Limited English Proficient College Students, Fordham U, 1996.


Guerrero, M. D. (1997). "Spanish Academic Language Proficiency." Bilingual Research Journal 21(1).

            Empirical evidence has been forthcoming that supports the sustained use of native language instruction for Spanish language origin children in the United States. This paper argues that prospective bilingual education teachers are not generally afforded the type of Spanish language development opportunities needed to provide sustained native language instruction characterising the most effective program models. Rather, the academic Spanish language development opportunities they do receive are aimed primarily at serving the needs  of early-exit transitional bilingual education programs, the most common and least effective type of bilingual program in the US.


"Two-way immersion programs, and more specifically, sustained native language instruction, are by no means the sole solution to the educational plight on the community in question. However, under present U.S. policies and practices, this type of bilingual education program model appears promising in alleviatiing the pattern of underachievement that unfortunately characterises too large percentage of the Spanish-speaking community"


Hakuta, K. and D. D'Andrea (1992). "Some Properties of Bilingual Maintenance and Loss in Mexican Background High-School Students." Applied Linguistics 13(1): 72-99.

            Properties of the maintenance and loss of Spanish/English bilingualism were investigated in 308 high-school students of Mexican background. Subjects were classified by their depth of familial establishment in the United States. The key variables investigated were their actual and self-reported proficiencies in Spanish and English, self-reported language choice behaviour in various settings, and their language attitude. The largest difference in Spanish proficiency was found between the cohort who were born in the United States but whose parents were born in Mexico and the cohort whose parents were born in the United States, with maintenance of Spanish evident up to this group. Maintenance of Spanish proficiency was principally associated with adult language practice in the home, and was not predicted by the subject's language choice outside the home or their language attitude. In turn, adult language choice was found to be affected by the demographic fact of immigration, the adult's ability to use English in the home, and increasing distance in the familial social network ties to Mexico. Outside of the home domain, language choice was found to show rapid and constant shift towards English. This shift in language choice was unrelated to Spanish proficiency, but instead was predicted by the subject's language attitude. Language attitude also appeared to contaminate self-reported proficiency in both Spanish and English. Finally, a response latency task for vocabulary production and recognition in Spanish suggested that attrition of Spanish is best characterised as difficulty in retrieval rather than total loss.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Emplear la Clase de Idiomas como base para el Trabajo en otras Asignaturas. La Enseñanza del Inglés en la Educación Primaria. Metodología práctica para la clase de primaria en el nuevo sistema educativo español. S. Halliwell. Essex, England, Longman: 135-141.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Emplear Técnicas de otras Asignaturas para Estimular el Trabajo en la Clase de Idiomas. La Enseñanza del Inglés en la Educación Primaria. Metodología práctica para la clase de primaria en el nuevo sistema educativo español. S. Halliwell. Essex, England, Longman: 141-146.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Emplear Temas de otras Asignaturas en la Clase de Inglés. La Enseñanza del Inglés en la Educación Primaria. Metodología práctica para la clase de primaria en el nuevo sistema educativo español. S. Halliwell. Essex, England, Longman: 147-148.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Estrategias para Impartir toda una Clase de otra Asignatura en Inglés. La Enseñanza del Inglés en la Educación Primaria. Metodología práctica para la clase de primaria en el nuevo sistema educativo español. S. Halliwell. Essex, England, Longman: 149-156.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Integrar la Enseñanza de Idiomas en otras Asignaturas. La Enseñanza del Inglés en la Educación Primaria. Metodología práctica para la clase de primaria en el nuevo sistema educativo español. S. Halliwell. Essex, England, Longman: 123-134.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Integrating Language Work and Other Subjects. Teaching English in Primary School. S. Halliwell. London & New York, Longman: 130-143.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Introducing Topics from Other Subjects into Language Lessons. Teaching English in Primary School. S. Halliwell. London & New York, Longman: 158-160.


Halliwell, S. (1992). La Enseñanza del Inglés en la Educación Primaria. Metodología práctica para la clase de primaria en el nuevo sistema educativo español. Essex, England, Longman.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Strategies for Teaching Whole Lessons of other Subjects in English. Teaching English in Primary School. S. Halliwell. London & New York, Longman: 161-169.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Teaching English in the Primary School. London & New York, Longman.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Using Language Classes to Provide Material for Work in other Lessons. Teaching English in Primary School. S. Halliwell. London & New York, Longman: 144-151.


Halliwell, S. (1992). Using Techniques from other Subjects to Stimulate Language Work. Teaching English in Primary School. S. Halliwell. London & New York, Longman: 152-157.


Harley, B., P. Allen, et al., Eds. (1990). The Development of Second Language Proficiency. Applied Linguistics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

            It presents the results of a major investigation of SL proficiency in various groups of school age learners. The contributors, address such issues as the nature of language proficiency, the impact of classroom practices on SL learning, the relationship between social-environmental factors and bilingual proficiency, and the relationship between age and language proficiency.


Harley, B., D. Hart, et al. (1986). "The Effects of Eearly Bilingual Schooling on First Language Skills." Applied Psycholinguistics 7(4): 295-322.

            In this study, the development of first language skills among native English-speaking students enrolled in early French immersion programs in Canadian schools is explored. It is hypothesised that early bilingual schooling received by those majority children wills serve to enhance their performance on various kinds of L1 tasks. Some preliminary evidence consistent with this hypothesis is found in a longitudinal comparison of English language test scores obtained over a six-year period of 22 immersion students and 22 regular English program students. Analysis of specific test items where the immersion students clearly outperform their regular program counterparts leads to the development of more specific hypotheses, which are tested via new measures on a larger sample of students in grade 6.


Howarth, P. (1993). A Phraseological Approach to Academic Writing. Language, Learning and Success: Studying through English. G. M. Blue. London and Basingstoke, Macmillan Publishers Limited: 70-79.


Jim, C. (1981). "Age on Arrival and Immigrant Second Language Learning in Canada: A Reassessment." Applied Linguistics 2(2): 132-149.


Levis, N. (2001). "The Brave New World of Bilingual Teaching." Times Educational Supplement(4418).

            "At Regents Park they actively encourage pupils to use their mother tongue in class. And the policy is paying off as national test results rise dramatically" Neil Levis reports.


Lightbown, P. M. (2000). "Great Expectations: Second-Language Acquisition Research and Classroom Teaching." Applied Linguistics 21(4): 431-462.

            In Lightbown (1985a), the author summarised  SLA research by stating ten generalisations which were consistent with the research to that date. She concluded that SLA research could not serve as the basis for telling teachers what to teach or how. One of the reasons for that was the limited scope of SLA research at that time. Another reason was that most of the research had not been designed to answer pedagogical questions. However, she suggested that SLA research was one important source of information which would help teachers set appropriate expectations for themselves and their students. In this paper, following a review of language teaching practices of the past fifty years, she reassesses the ten generalisations in light of the considerable amount of classroom-based SLA research which ahs been carried out since 1985, especially that which has addressed pedagogical corners in primary and secondary school foreign and second language classes. For the most part, this research tends to add further support to the generalisations, and this gives them greater pedagogical relevance. Nevertheless, Lightbown argues that teachers need to continue to draw on many other kind of knowledge and experience in determining the teaching practices which are appropriate for their classrooms.


Marsh, D. and G. Langé, Eds. (1999). Implementing Content and Language Integrated Learning. A Research-driven TIE_CLIL Foundation Course Reader. Jyväskylä, Finland, Continuing Education Centre, University of Jyväskylä on behalf of TIE-CLIL (European Lingua Project).


Mohan, B., C. Leung, et al., Eds. (2001). English as a Second Language in the Mainstream. Teaching, Learning and Identity. Language Linguistics and Language Study. Essex, England, Longman.

            Drawing on their experience as researchers and educators in Australia, Canada and England, the authors of English as a Second Language in the Mainstream present an up-to-date account of advances in theory and practice. Their analysis of system-wide provision however, suggests that a truly responsive educational vision is lacking: government policy is inadequate, educational practices for ESL students are either underdeveloped or poorly co-ordinated with practices for other students, and the rhetoric of reform fails to engage significantly with issues of teaching and resources. The authors argue towards a more comprehensive vision which can acknowledge the relation between issues concerning ESL students and issues concerning the educational system as a whole, which can co-ordinate reforms in ESL education with general reforms, which can explicitly and systematically integrate language learning and content learning, and which can build more positively on the multilingual and multicultural nature of modern education for all students.


Muñoz, C., Ed. (2000). Segundas Lenguas. Adquisición en el Aula. Ariel Lingüística. Barcelona, Ariel.




Primera Parte: El Aprendiz, sujeto de aprendizaje

1. Lo que la fruta puede decirnos acerca de la transferencia léxico-semántica: una dimensión no estructural de las percepciones que tiene el aprendiz sobre las relaciones lingüísticas by Eric Kellerman

2. La teoría Chomskiana y la adquisición de la gramática no nativa: a la búsqueda de desencadenantes by Juana M. Liceras & Lourdes Díaz

3. La motivación y su relación con la edad en un contexto escolar de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera by Elsa Tragant & Carmen Muñoz

Segunda Parte: El aula , lugar de aprendizaje

4. Las variables contextuales y el efecto de la instrucción en la adquisición de segundas lenguas by Jasone Cenoz y Josu Perales

5. Métodos actuales de investigación en el aula de segundas lenguas by Craig Chaudron

6. La negociación del entorno lingüísticao de la L2 by Catherine Doughty

Tercera Parte: Las competencias, objeto de aprendizaje

7. El desarrollo de la competencia gramatical oral en una segunda lengua a través de la actuación lingüística: aproximaciones interaccionistas y cognitivas by Lourdes Ortega

8. La pragmática de la interlengua desde una perspectiva evolutiva by Gabriele Kasper & Margaret A Dufon

9. Desarrollo de la competencia discursiva oral en el aula de lenguas extranjeras: perspectivas metodológicas y de investigación by Eva Alcón Soler

10. La influencia de la variable 'grado de dominio de la L2' en los procesos de composición en la lengua extranjera: hallazgos recientes de la investigación by R. M. Manchón, J. Roca & L. Murphy

11. Influencia del conocimiento previo y del nivel de una segunda lengua en la comprensión escrita de textos académicos by Victòria Codina Espurz & Esther Usó Juan



Back cover written by Carme Muñoz Lahoz

Este volumen constituye un esfuerzo por ofrecer al lector de habla castellana trabajos actuales en el campo de la adquisición de segundas lenguas realizados tanto dentro como fuera de este país [España]. Son muchos los libros que se publican cada año sobre adquisición de lenguas, no sólo en los países anglosajones (en los que existe un evidente y claro interés por la explicación de los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la lengua inglesa), sino también en otros países de nuestro entorno europeo. Por lo contrario, en los países de habla hispana y, en España en particular, el campo de la adquisición de segundas lenguas es todavía muy reciente, habiendo florecido de manera especial en lugares con una cierta tradición de estudios de primeras lenguas o de bilingüismo.

Este libro presenta una selección de trabajos sobre adquisición de segundas lenguas que se centran principalmente en los procesos de aprendizaje de lenguas en el marco escolar, orientado especialmente a investigadores y a profesores de idiomas de nuestro contexto. Es el nuestro precisamente un contexto rico y diverso en situaciones de adquisición de lenguas no maternas en el aula. Además de la situación e adquisición de lenguas extranjeras por niños, jóvenes y adultos en un marco institucional, nos encontramos con la situación de las segundas lenguas que se adquieren por inmersión escolar en las comunidades bilingües y, más recientemente, la nueva situación de inmigrantes de lenguas no hispanas que aprenden en la escuela una o dos segundas lenguas.

Aunque la adquisición de segundas lenguas se realice mediante los mismos procesos en una situación de inmersión como en una de aprendizaje escolar, las diferencias que aporta el contexto son importantes y deben ser conocidas para facilitar la intervención pedagógica.

Interesa también descartar el esfuerzo de recoger en este libro estudios sobre adquisición del español como segunda lengua, campo que tiene todavía mucho camino que recorrer, si lo comparamos con el de adquisición del inglés como lengua segunda o extranjera.

Finalmente, es de gran interés el conjunto de propuestas de estudios de los autores y autoras de los diferentes capítulos para cada una de las áreas. Estas propuestas pueden proporcionar a los estudiosos, principiantes o no, un conocimiento de las áreas en desarrollo y en las que su aportación, particularmente en el campo del español como segunda lengua, sería necesarias.


Muñoz, C. (2001). "L'Ensenyança de llengües estrangeres: ja hi dediquem prou temps?" Escola Catalana 377(XXXVI): 6-9.

            "L'objectius de l'ensenyament escolar de llengües estrangeres és aconseguir parlants de la llengua meta amb una competència comunicativa bàsica, iper assolir això el sistema escolar català disposa de menys de 800 hores des de tercer curs d'educació primària fins a segon curs de batxillerat. Per altra banda, els experts en ensenyament i aprenentatge de llengües que han estudiat el temps que es necessita per aconseguir el domini d'una llengua han calculat que són necessàries aproximadament unes 5.000 hores de classe, i que un coneixement elemental requereix unes 1.200"


Muñoz, C. (forthcoming). "Los Avances Canadienses en la Enseñanza de Segundas Lenguas. Reflexiones sobre nuestra situación."

            "En conclusión, cualquiera que sea la fórmula que se siga para mejorar las situación de enseñanza-aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras en España, ésta debería tener muy en cuenta las tres lecciones que, a mi parecer, nos aportan las experiencias canadienses a este respecto. Primera, una introducción temprana es óptima cuando la lengua se utiliza como medio de instrucción y comunicación efectiva y significativa, lo cual significa también una exposición masiva a la lengua. Segunda, el aprendizaje intensivo proporciona mejores resultados que el aprendizaje extensivo, por lo que un inicio más temprano sin un incremento muy considerable de horas de exposición y enseñaza de la lengua, no produciría beneficios sustanciales. Tercera, la enseñanza escolar de un idioma extranjero presenta evidentes limitaciones, pro ejemplo en el tipo de input e interacción en el aula, en la cantidad y calidad de la exposición a la lengua, y en el tiempo destinado al aprendizaje. La escuela debería, por ello, tener como objetivo proporcionar a los estudiantes los niveles básicos suficientes en una lengua, y la motivación suficiente, para que éstos continúen aprendiendo después de clase, y más allá de la escuela. Sin duda alguna, tendremos que seguir observando muy de cerca los avances canadienses en esta materia, tanto a nivel de propuestas organizativas escolares como pedagógicas."


Musumeci, D. (1996). "Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Conten-Based Instruction: Communication at Cross-Purposes." Applied Linguistics 17(3): 286-324.

            This research looks at teacher-student exchanges in three content-based language classrooms. The data reveal persistent archetypal patterns of classroom interaction; teachers speak most of the time and they initiate the majority of the exchanges by asking display questions, whereas student-initiated requests are reverential. In addition, teachers modify their own speech in response to students' signals of non-understanding regardless of activity type (whole class, small group, one-to-one), but students prefer to verbally request help only in small group or one-to-one interactions with the teacher. Moreover, although teachers repeatedly modify their speech in response to students' requests (verbal or non-verbal), they rarely request modifications of the students' speech. Sustained negotiation - in which teachers and students verbally resolve incomplete or inaccurate messages - occurs rarely or not at all in these classrooms.


Navés Nogués, T. and C. Muñoz Lahoz (1999). Experiencias AICLE en España. Implementing Content and Language Integrated Learning. A Research-driven TIE_CLIL Foundation Course Reader. D. Marsh and G. Langé. Jyväskylä, Finland, Continuing Education Centre, University of Jyväskylä on behalf of TIE-CLIL (European Lingua Project): 131-144.


Navés Nogués, T. and C. Muñoz Lahoz (1999). Implementation of CLIL in Spain. Implementing Content and Language Integrated Learning. A Research-driven TIE_CLIL Foundation Course Reader. D. Marsh and G. Langé. Jyväskylä, Finland, Continuing Education Centre, University of Jyväskylä on behalf of TIE-CLIL (European Lingua Project):



Navés Nogués, T. and C. Muñoz Lahoz (2000). Usar las Lenguas Extranjeras para Aprender y Aprender a Usar las Lenguas Extranjeras. Una introducción al AICLE para madres, padres, y jóvenes. Using Languages to Learn and Learning to Use Languages. D. Marsh and G. Langé. Jyväskylä, Finland, UniCOM, University of Jyväskylä on behalf of TIE-CLIL.


Navés, T. and C. Muñoz (1999). Experienze di CLIL (AICLE) in Spagna. Apprendimento Integrato di Lingua e Contenuti: Propososte di Realizzazione. Corso di base per la sperimentazione TIE-CLIL. D. Marsh and G. Langé. Milano, Italy, M.P.I.- Direzione Regionale per la Lombardia: 134.


Norris, J. M. and L. Ortega (2000). "Effectiveness of L2 Instruction: A Research Synthesis and Quantitative Meta-analysis." Language Learning 50(3): 417-528.

            This study employed (and reports in detail) systematic procedures for research synthesis and meta-analysis to summarise findings


Ozerk, K. and S. Krashen (2001). "Subject Matter Teaching in Bilingual Education: Impact on Bilingual and Monolingual Students." ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 131-132: 1-10.

            Urdu and Turkish speaking children acquiring Norwegian as a second language learned more subject matter in bilingual classes than comparison students in monolingual Norwegian-only classes. Monolingual native speakers of Norwegian learned the same amount of subject matter in bilingual and monolingual classes.


Padilla, A. M., H. H. Fairchild, et al., Eds. (1990). Foreign Language Education. Issues and Strategies. London, Sage Publications.


Peirce, B. N., M. Swain, et al. (1993). "Self-Assessment, French Immersion, and Locus of Control." Applied Linguistics 14(1): 25-42.

            This article compares the self-assessments of French proficiency made by approximately 500 Grade 8 students in two different French immersion programs ('early' and 'middle') in Toronto, Canada. Two self-assessment benchmarks are used: the perceived language proficiency of francophone peers and the difficulty represented by specific everyday tasks in French. The study investigates: (1) the extent to which self-assessment is a valid and reliable indicator of tested proficiency in French immersion programs; (2) how benchmarks influence correlations of self-assessment with tested proficiency; (3) whether self-assessment research can inform or support current theories of second language learning and assessment. The results indicate that: (1) self-assessments of language proficiency correlate only weakly with objective measures of language proficiency; (2) self-assessment measures on specific tasks are more highly correlated with tested proficiency than are global self-assessment measures; (3) irrespective of program, students agree on the relative difficulty of oral and literacy tasks in French under specific conditions of reception and production. These findings are explained with reference to current research on self-assessment, Spolsky's Conditions for Second Language Learning (1889), and the author's construct of 'locus of control' in a communicative event. It is argued that the locus of control operates at the 'interface' (Bachman 1989) between language assessment and second language acquisition research.


Pérez Vidal, C., R. Torras, et al. (2000). "Age and EFL Written Performance by Catalan /Spanish Bilinguals." Spanish Applied Linguistics 4(2): 267-290.

            The objective of this paper is to analyse and compare the production of written English as an L2 of 2 groups of learners who are bilingual in Catalan and Spanish. They are differentiated in that they have had different starting ages of instruction in English, 8 and 11 respectively. Both groups were measures at two different times, after 200 and 416 hours of English. For the purpose of the comparison, a set of measures to gauge writing ability was applied. Moreover, a more detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the constructions in their production was carried out, as these show interlingual and intralingual connections operating in their writing. Our results add further support to the already existing evidence in favour of the critical period hypothesis, with data from bilingual subjects learning English as a third language in a foreign language environment.


Measures of the analysis of EFL writing used

Complexity: Co-ordination Index, Nodes per sentence, Total number of non-finite verbs, Lexical density,

Noun types, Adjective types, Primary verbs types, Lexical verb types and auxiliary verb types.

Fluency: Total number of sentences, clauses and words. Words per sentence and total number of nodes.

Accuracy: Percentage of error-free sentences and total number of rejected units.


Porter, R. P. (2000). "Accountability is Overdue: Testing the Academic Achievement of Limited English Proficient Students." Applied Measurement in Education 13(4): 403-410.

            Providing an equal education for 3.5 million children who do not have as sufficient knowledge of the English language and to help them participate fully in mainstream classrooms is a growing challenge for U.S. public schools. Education reform and accountability initiatives in several states are beginning to include limited English proficient (LEP) students in their assessment efforts. Educators recognise the importance of maintaining rigorous standards and high expectations for language minority students. Legal mandates require periodic assessments of LEP students' progress and the allocation of additional resources where needed. Texas leads the country in bringing about academic accountability for LEP students -trough evaluating and reporting annually on their progress in English-language literacy and in their learning of school subjects, and by documenting the steady growth in successful performance on state tests by this special population


Poulisse, N. and T. Bongaerts (1994). "First Language Use in Second Language Production." Applied Linguistics 15(1): 36-57.

            This article reports the results of a study undertaken to provide data relevant to the development of a model of bilingual speech production. The data which we used for this purpose are 771 unintentional language switches which occurred in a 35-hour corpus of L2 learner English collected from 45 Dutch learners at 3 different proficiency levels. The occurrence of the language switches turned out to be related to the learners' proficiency in English. This finding is interpreted as support for a spreading activation account of lexical access in bilingual speakers in which the relative frequency of L1 and L2 words in the learner's repertoire plays an important role.

We also examined whether our findings could be accommodated with Myers-Scotton's (1992) matrix language frame model for intrasentential code switching and with de Bot's (1992) suggestions to adapt Levelt's (1989) model of speaking for bilingual speech production. In general, this proved to be the case, but the data suggested it was also possible to draw some more specific conclusions. These concerned the storage of inflected word forms in the (bilingual) mental lexicon, the existence of a lexical checking device, and the relationship between lemma access and phonological encoding.


Richard-Amato, P. A., Ed. (1992). Multicultural Classroom. Readings for Content-Area Teachers. New York, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.


Rivers, -. W.-P. (1996). "Self-Directed Language Learning and Third Language Learner. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (30th, Philadelphia, PA, November 22-24, 1996)." ERIC Database(ED411679).

            A study investigated the characteristics and behaviours of college students learning a third language. Four groups of students with backgrounds in Slavic second languages and enrolled in a variety of Slavic and non-Slavic third languages courses were studied using ethnographic techniques, including open-ended questionnaires, focus groups, classroom observation, and interviews. Subjects were from three programs: a 1993-94 program in languages of the former Soviet Union at the University of Maryland at College Park; a language cross-training program at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (California) (DLI); and a DLI study of the effectiveness of foreign language immersion training. The proficiency outcomes of third-language learners were compared with those of learners in similar second-language courses. Two results emerged: (1) third-language learners are highly successful; they learn more language faster than second language learners of the same target language; and (2) their behaviours are those of the self-directed learner. Implications of self-directed second-language learning for the learner of less commonly taught languages and for learning outside formal language programs are discussed. Contains 88 references


Rolstad, K. (1997). "Effects of Two-way Immersion on the Ethnic Identification of Third Language Students: An Exploratory Study." Bilingual Research Journal 21(1).

            While two-way immersion programs have been shown to be very effective for both language majority and language minority students, their effectiveness with students who speak a home language other than those used in the classroom has not been established. Since the inclusion of such third language students in two-way immersion programs is rare, little is known about whether the effects might be positive or negative. However, a Korean/English two-way immersion program implemented in Los Angeles which includes several speakers of Spanish and Tagalog presented a rare research opportunity. Among several possible areas of concern regarding the effects of two-way immersion on third language students, differences in ethnic identification might be anticipated. This exploratory study provides and discusses indicators of positive progress outcomes which relate to academic achievement, language development and ethnic identity, focusing on ethnic identification with students' own group and with others. Data were collected from students in two other programs, English mainstream and Spanish bilingual, for comparison with same school peers. It was found that the third language students fared quite well in academic and language development, as well as in ethnic identification, with some interesting differences. Based on these findings, it is tentative suggested that two-way immersion may provide a better education alternative than submersion for third language students for whom bilingual program is not available.

Abstract from ERIC Database:

An exploratory study used Los Angeles' Korean/English Bilingual Immersion Project (KEBIP) to examine effects of two-way immersion on ethnic identification of third-language speakers who received no first-language support from teachers. KEBIP participants were compared with ethnically matched students from other classrooms. Third-language students fared well in language development and ethnic identification. Contains 33 references.


Royer, J. M. and M. S. Carlo (1991). "Assessing the Language Acquisition Progress of Limited English Proficient Students." Applied Measurement in Education 4(2): 85-114.

            The article discusses the need educators have for measures of linguistic competence for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. Traditional measurement procedures do not meet these needs because of mismatches between educational experiences and test content, cultural experiences and test content. A new type of test -Sentence Verification Technique (SVT) test - that may meet some of the measurement needs of LEP students is describe, an the results of a study that examines the reliability and validity of the new tests as measures of the listening and reading comprehension performance in both the native language and English reported. The results indicate that the tests are reliable and that SVT performance varies as functions of placement in a transitional bilingual education program, teachers judgements of competence, and difficulty of the material. These results are consistent with the interpretation  that SVT tests are valid measures of the linguistic competence of LEP students. The article concludes with a discussion of some of the advantages of using SVT tests with LEP populations.


Sanz, C. (2000). "Bilingual Education Enhances Third Language Acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia." Applied Psycholinguistics 21: 23-44.

            Studies on the acquisition of a third language (L3) in a bilingual context have shown that literacy in two  languages facilitates the acquisition of a third (Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Swain, Lapkin, Rowen, &  Hart, 1990). The present study seeks to contribute to this line of research by comparing the acquisition  of English as an L3 by Catalan/Spanish bilingual high school students in an immersion program with  the acquisition of English by Spanish monolinguals. Data from 201 participants were submitted to a  hierarchical multiple regression analysis, rendering results that show that bilingualism indeed has a  positive effect on the acquisition of an L3. The evidence is discussed from a cognitive perspective.


Evidence is provided in favour of a positive relationship between Catalan/Spanish Biliterate bilingualism and knowledge of English.


Serra Santasusana, T. and R. M. Ramírez Palau (2001). "El Projecte Integrat de Llengües de l'Escola Vila Olímpica." Escola Catalana 337: 28-33.

            Aquest projecte es fa en una escola pública de nova creació. L'escola és de doble línia i compren les etapes d'educació infantil i primària. En aquests moments, amb nens i nenes de 3 a 9 anys arribem fins a 4rt de primària, i tenim divuit mestres. L'escola està considerada com a CERE (Centre Experimental de Règim Especial). Aquesta consideració demana anar reflexionant i investigant sobre el projecte que hem porposat i ens facilita tenir els mestere amb el perfil que el projecte demana, en aquest cas, mestres que parlin anglès a més de català i castellà i que alhora estiguin interessats per treballar la llengua en ús de de totes les àrees curriculars.


Snow, M. A. (1998). "Trends and Issues in Content-Based Instruction." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 18: 243-267.


Impact on Instructional Practices

1. Content-ESL in Elementary and Secondary Schools

2. English for Academic Purposes

3.English as a Foreign Language

Impact on Assessment Practices

Impact on Teacher Training Practices

1. Training Models

2. Language and Content Teacher Collaboration

Content-Based Instruction as a Research Setting

1. Program outcomes studies

2. Classroom-based research

Content-based Instruction as a Setting for Innovative Teaching

On-going Challenges


Content-based instruction in second/foreign language teaching takes place against a complex backdrop of instructional settings and educational levels. This chapter has purposely drawn on examples form both second and foreign language education to look at trends and issues in instructional practice, assessment, faculty development, research, and instructional innovation that have enriched our understanding of content-based instruction. In addition, the thorny issues of status and roles, what constitutes appropriate content, and the training of content-area teachers were selected for elaboration from among the many on-going challenges faced by those involved in the enterprise of content-based instruction. Much, however, remains to be explored and understood. Research which branches out in new directions beyond program outcomes and teacher variation must be encouraged. Broader perspectives on EAP across the levels must be taken. Experimentation with innovative techniques and approaches  should continue --all in the name of exploiting the content-based setting for its rich resources, resources that improve our understanding of second/foreign language teaching and learning.


Snow, M. A. and D. M. Brinton (1992). "The CATESOL Journal. Special Theme Issue: Content-Based Instruction." The CATESOL Journal 5(1): 1-191.


Snow, M. A., A. M. Padilla, et al. (1988). "Patterns of Second Language Retention of Graduates of a Spanish Immersion Program." Applied Linguistics 9(2): 183-197.

            This paper reports on a study of the second language retention of students who completed a seven-year elementary Spanish  immersion program. In the study, the relationship between attitudinal factors, language use, self-assessment of Spanish  proficiency, and second language retention was examined. Subjects were 38 immersion graduates, and 20 currently enrolled  Grade 6 immersion students. The Modern Language Association (MLA) Co-operative Test of Spanish and a 63-item  questionnaire designed to obtain information about opportunities to use Spanish, interest in foreign languages, parental  encouragement, and ethnocentrism were administered to all subjects. Results indicated that some language loss occurred soon  after the formal learning situation was terminated. Significant differences between MLA scores of students with continued  formal exposure to Spanish and those who had discontinued Spanish, however, did not develop until high school. At the high  school level, significant differences across all four skills (writing, speaking, reading, and listening) were found with the greatest  losses occurring in the productive skills. Exploratory factor analysis of the questionnaire data yielded four factors which were  labelled: 'Interest in foreign language', 'Encouragement and pride in work', 'Integrative orientation', and 'Parental/integrative  orientation'. Cross-tabulations revealed significant X values between three of the factors and the productive skills. All of the  factors, except integrative orientation, were also significantly related to language-use opportunities. Findings suggest that the  attitudinal predisposition underlying the four factors influences the extent to which students retain their Spanish skills in writing  and speaking. These factors appear, however, to be unrelated to retention of receptive skills in Spanish.


Solé, D. (2001). "El Projecte ORATOR, per Millorar l'Aprenentatge de les Llengües Estrangeres a l'Ensenyament Reglat 1999-2004." Escola Catalana 377: 42-43.

            El Departament d'Ensenyament de la Generalitat de Catalunya s'ha proposat impulsar la millora de l'ensenyament-aprenentatge de les llengües estrangeres a l'ensenyament de règim general mitjançant el projecte ORATOR, per tal d'atendre la necessitat que tota la població pugui moure's en l'àmbit europeu sense les barreres que suposa el desconeixement de llengües


Sorace, A. (1985). "Metalinguistic Knowledge and Language Use in Acquisition-poor Environments." Applied Linguistics 6(3): 239-254.

            This study is concerned with foreign-language learning in acquisition-poor environments, that is the common situation in monolingual European countries where learners have few opportunities to practice the language outside the classroom.

The aim of the study is to investigate two issues:

1. The development of metalinguistic knowledge

2. The relationship between knowledge and use of the language.



There seems to be a definite developmental pattern for metalinguistic knowledge. Despite their exposure to a grammar-oriented teaching method, learners are not immediately able to apply the information they are given in metalinguistic tasks. Moreover, learners reproduce and probably assimilate pedagogical rules in different ways.

Despite the lack of opportunities to practise the language, the internalised knowledge becomes more accessible. Along with the progressive specialisation of internalised knowledge, a significant development of procedural knowledge takes place which enables learners to express themselves, although with difficulty in interactive situations. This means that their communicative competence is still restricted, yet functionally adequate in some cases, and certainly a useful starting point for the future.

Finally, attention has been drawn to the difficulty of explaining these results in a theoretical framework which denies any productive function to metalinguistic knowledge. It is hard to justify the growing interaction between the subject's metalinguistic knowledge and their productive use of FL if one is not prepared to admit either that formal knowledge can be applied in production, or that it has at least a more central function than limited monitoring.

If one beliefs that formal knowledge of a foreign language does have a positive function, the question is open as to how exploit this potential in a lively, communicative-oriented learning situation. This requires a better comprehension of the psycholinguistic processes underlying the complex relationships between knowledge and use in language learning. There is still a long way to go in this direction.


Spanos, G. (1989). "On the Integration of Language and Content Instruction." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 10: 227-241.

            It contains annotated bibliography


Stoops Verplaetse, L. (1998). "How Content Teachers Interact with English Language Learners." Tesol Journal 7(5): 24-29.

            English learners are often marginalised, and their opportunities to interact minimalised-- even in classrooms of teachers with the best intentions.


Swain, M. (2000). "A Critical Review of the Critical Period Research." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 20: 213-224.


Valdés, G. (2000). "Book Review: Bilingualism and Testing: A Special Case of Bias." Applied Psycholinguistics 21(2): 290.


Valdés, G. and R. Figueroa (1994). Bilingualism and Testing: A special case of bias. Norwood, NJ, Ablex Publishing.


Valencia Garate, J. and J. Cenoz Iragui (1993). "Bilingualism and Third Language Acquisition." ERIC Database(ED364118).

            A study investigated the role of bilingualism (Basque/Spanish) and motivation in third (English) language acquisition in Spain's Basque country. Subjects were 321 secondary school students in two programs, one with instruction primarily in Spanish and one with instruction primarily in Basque. The following independent variables were analysed in the subjects: bilingualism (early or late); competence in Basque; monolingual versus bilingual mother; principal language of instruction; general intelligence; attitude toward English; effort made to learn English relative to other subjects; visits to English-speaking countries; and English language instruction outside school. Dependent variables that were examined include achievement in the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing), vocabulary, and grammar. Data were gathered by questionnaire, written tests of English, and interviews in English. Results indicate that: bilinguals performed better in English than monolinguals; highly motivated students performed best; and there were complex interaction effects of bilingualism, motivation, family bilingualism, Basque as the primary language of instruction, and intelligence on English achievement. Contains 32 references. Results of data analyses are appended


Verhallen, M. and B. Schoonen (1998). "Lexical Knowledge in L1 and L2 of Third and Fifth Grades." Applied Linguistics 19(4): 452-470.


Verhallen, M. and R. Schoonen (1993). "Lexical Knowledge of Monolingual and Bilingual Children." Applied Linguistics 14(4): 344-363.

            The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual Dutch and 40 bilingual Turkish children (9 and 11 year olds) to explain the meanings of common Dutch nouns in an extended word definition task. In a highly structured interview session the children were stimulated to express all the meaning aspects they could think of.

We evaluated both the differences between the two ethnic groups and the effect of age in relation to the types of leaning the children expressed, by means of statistical (loglinear) model fitting. Important differences were found with respect to the number of meaning aspects expressed and with respect to the nature of meaning relations involved. Compared to the monolingual Dutch children, the bilingual Turkish children tended to allot less extensive and less varied meanings to Dutch words


Verhoeven, L. T. and H. E. Boeschoten (1986). "First Language Acquisition in a Second Language Submersion Environment." Applied Psycholinguistics 7(3): 241-256.

            In the present paper a linguistic description is given of the process of first language acquisition of Turkish children aged 4-8 in a Dutch submersion environment in the Netherlands. On the basis of the assumption that language development involves the acquisition of distinct subskills in differential patternings, the development of lexical, morphosyntactic, and pragmatic abilities have been investigated separately. Furthermore, these longitudinal data are compared with cross-sectional language data of five and seven-year-old children in Turkey. This comparison was made in order to be able to interpret whether the Turkish language skills of native Turkish-speaking children in the Netherlands were showing delay, stagnation or attrition of skills. The overall results suggest that in the age range of 4-8 years of the acquisition of first language skills in Turkish children in the Netherlands can be best to be characterised as stagnated.


Wong-Fillmore, L. (1985). When does teacher talk work as input? Input in Second Language Acquisition. S. M. Gass and C. G. Madden. Cambridge, Newbury House Publishers: 17-50.


Wright, S. (1996). Monolingualism and Bilingualism. Lessons from Canada and Spain. Clevedon, UK, Multilingual Matters.


Wright, S., Ed. (2000). Monolingualism and Bilingualism. Lessons from Canada and Spain. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.


Foreword by Julian Edge (1-4)

Monolingualism, Bilingualism and Identity: Lessons and Insights from Recent Canadian Experience by John Edwards (5-38)

Debate (39-59)

Monolingualism, Bilingualism, Cultural Pluralism and National Identity: Twenty Years of Language Planning in Contemporary Spain by Chralote Hoffmann (59-90)

Debate (90-108)


After each of the articles, which were presented in a seminar series, there is a transcript of the debate which followed. The invited audiences are also scholars working on the area or in allied fields.


Zaretsky, E. and J. B. Gleason (2000). "Bilingualism and Testing: A Special Case of Bias. G. Valdes and R. Figueroa. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1994. Pp 255. (Book Review)." Applied Psycholinguistics 21(2): 290-296.