# GSEQ and SDIS

The **Generalized Sequential Querier** is a computer
program for analyzing sequential observational data. It computes a
variety of **simple and contingency table statistics**.
Simple statistics include frequencies, rates, durations, and
proportions (percentages).

Table statistics include joint frequencies, adjusted residuals, chi-squares and, for 2x2 tables, Yule's Q and odds ratios. Statistics can be computed for various lags, and separately for each session or pooled over sessions, levels of a factor, or both.

The **Sequential Data Interchange Standard** is a
language for describing sequential data as obtained thru direct
observation of individuals, interacting dyads, or groups. GSEQ includes
a compiler for SDIS-formatted data files that converts them into MDS
files (modified SDS files), which are then analyzed with the various
analytic procedures included in GSEQ.

Data can be entered manually into SDIS files, or converted from other data formats such as those used in Mangold's INTERACT and Noldus' The Observer videoanalysis software using our standalone utilities ActSds, OdfSds (The Observer Version 5 and earlier), and ObsTxtSds (The Observer Version 6 and later).

**Data modification:** GSEQ's data modification
capabilities expand analytic possibilities. New codes can be created
form existing ones using standard logical operations (e.g., and, or,
not) or by recoding, lumping, and chaining. The window command is
especially useful. It lets you define new codes (windows) that are tied
to onsets and/or offsets of existing codes and, in particular, peform
time-window sequential analyses.

**Exportation:** A major use of GSEQ is to produce
statistics for export that are then analyzed by standard
statistical packages such as SPSS or R or by standard spreadsheet
programs such as Excel. More generally, GSEQ's output consists of
simple tab-delimited text files that can be read into and manipulated
by any spreadsheet program.

**Data plotting and interobserver agreement:** GSEQ
also includes helpful data plotting routines and procedures for
assessing interobserver agreement with event-based and time-based
kappas.

# Program and Book

The current version is GSEQ 5, a new and significantly improved version of GSEQ. It runs under Windows and on other operating systems that run Windows simulation software. It is described in:

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2011). *Sequential
Analysis and Observational Methods for the Behavioral Sciences*.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9781107001244
(hdcv), 9780521171816 (ppbk).

The initial DOS versions of GSEQ were described in:

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (1995). *Analyzing
Interaction: Sequential Analysis with SDIS and GSEQ*. Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0-521-44451-9 (hdcv),
0-521-44901-4 (ppbk) [out of print; may be hard to find]

**SDIS** was first defined in:

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (1992). SDIS: A
sequential data interchange standard. *Behavior Research Methods,
Instruments, and Computers*, 24, 554–559.