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Dades generals

 

Nom de l'assignatura: Recerca en Funció Cerebral Humana

Codi de l'assignatura: 568384

Curs acadèmic: 2015-2016

Coordinació: Carles Enric Escera Mico

Departament: Departament de Psiquiatria i Psicobiologia Clínica

crèdits: 5

Programa únic: S

 

 

Hores estimades de dedicació

Hores totals 125

 

Activitats presencials

50

 

-  Teoricopràctica

 

42

 

-  Tutorització per grups

 

8

Treball tutelat/dirigit

35

Aprenentatge autònom

40

 

 

Recomanacions

 


1. Cerebral representation
 

Escera, C. (2004). Aproximación histórica y conceptual a la neurociencia cognitiva. Cognitiva, 16, 141-161.

Elbert, T. Pantev, C., Wienbruch, C., Rockstroh, B., & Taub, E. (1995). Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science, 270, 305-307.

Gazzaniga, M.S. (1989). Organization of the human brain. Science, 245, 947-952.

Kaas, J.H., Nelson, R.J., Sur. M., Lin, C-S., & Merzenich, M.M. (1979). Multiple representations of the body within the primary somatosensory cortex of primates. Science, 204, 521-523.

Kandel, E. (2013). The new science of mind and the future of neuroscience. Neuron, 80, 546-560.

Quian Quiroga, R., Reddy, L., Kreiman, G., Koch, C., & Fried, I. (2005). Invariant visual representation by single neurons in the human brain. Nature 435, 1102–1107.

Quian Quiroga, R., Kreiman, G., Koch, C., & Fried, I. (2008) Sparse but not ’grandmother-cell’ coding in the medial temporal lobe. Trend in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 87-91.

Posner, M.I., Petersen, S.E., Fox, P.T. y Raichle, M.E. (1988). Localization of cognitive operations in the human brain. Science, 240, 1627-1631.

Pulvermüller, F. & Fadiga, L. (2010). Active perception: sensorimotor circuits as a cortical basis for language. Nature Reviews Neurosciences, 11, 351-360.

Vassar, R., Chao, S.K., Sitcheran, R., Nuñez, J.M., Vosshall, L.B., & Axel, R. (1994). Topographic organization of sensory projections to the olfactory bulb. Cell, 79, 981-991.
 
2. Digital neurobiology
 

Bandettini, P.A. (2009). What’s new in neuroimaging methods? Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 260-293.

Campbell-Meiklejohn. D,K,, Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Bach, D.R., Dolan, R.J., Roepstorff, A., & Frith, C.D. (2012). Structure of orbitofrontal cortex predicts social influence. Current Biology, 22, R123-124.

Chapter 1, Principals of Functional fMRI, in Faro, S.H. & Mohamed, F.B. (2010). BOLD fMRI: A Guide to Functional Imaging for Neuroscientists, 1st Ed. Berlin: Springer.

Chapter 3, Experimental design and data analysis for fMRI, in Faro, S.H. & Mohamed, F.B. (2010). BOLD fMRI: A Guide to Functional Imaging for Neuroscientists, 1st Ed. Berlin: Springer.

Chapter 10, Cognitive neuroscience applications, in Faro, S.H. & Mohamed, F.B. (2010). BOLD fMRI: A Guide to Functional Imaging for Neuroscientists, 1st Ed. Berlin: Springer.

Hamilton, L., Sohl-Dickstein, J., Huth, A., Carels, V., Deisseroth, K., and Bao, S. (2013). Optogenetic Activation of an Inhibitory Network Enhances Feedforward Functional Connectivity in Auditory Cortex. Neuron 80, 1066–1076, November 20.

Ioannides, A.A. (2006). Magnetoencephalography as a research tool in neuroscience: state of the art. The Neuroscientist, 12:524-544.

Michel, C.M., Murray, M.M. (2012). Towards the utilization of EEG as a brain imaging tool. NeuroImage, 61, 371–385.

Momennejad, I. & Haynes, J.D. (2012). Human anterior prefrontal cortex encodes the ’what’ and ’when’ of future intentions. Neuroimage, 61, 139-148.

Morris, R.W., Vercammen, A., Lenroot, R., Moore, L., Langton, J.M., Short, B., Kulkarni, J., Curtis, J., O’Donnell, M., Weickert, C.S., & Weickert, T.W. (2012).Disambiguating ventral striatum fMRI-related bold signal during reward prediction in schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry,17, 280-239.

Olejnickzac, P., (2006). Neurophysiologic basis of EEG. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 23, 186-189.

Symms, M., Jager, H.R., Schmierer, K., Yousry, T.A. (2004). A review of structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 75, 1235-1244.
 
3. Subcortical cognition
 

Antunes, F.M. & Malmierca, M.S. (2011). Effect of auditory cortex deactivation on stimulus-specific adaptation in the medial geniculate body. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 17306-17316.

Aron, A.R. & Poldrack, R.A. (2006). Cortical and subcortical contributions to Stop signal response inhibition: role of the subthalamic nucleus. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 2424-2433.

Hikosaka, O. & Isoda, M. (2010). Switching from automatic to controlled behavior: cortico-basal ganglia mechanisms. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 154-161.

Koralek, A., Costa, R., and Carmena, J. (2013). Temporally Precise Cell-Specific Coherence Develops in Corticostriatal Networks during Learning. Neuron 79, 865–872, September 4.

McNab, F. &  Klinberg, T. (2008). Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia control access to working memory. Nature Neuroscience, 11, 103-107.

Parvizi, J. (2009). Corticocentric myopia: old bias in new cognitive sciences. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 354-359.

Strick, P.L., Dum, R.P., Fiez, J.A. (2009). Cerebellum and nonmotor function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 32, 413-434.

 
4. Brain waves
 

Buzsáki, G. (2006). Rhythms of the brain. New York: Oxford University Press.

Buzsáki, G. & Draguhn, A. (2004). Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks. Science, 304, 1926-1929.

Daitcha, A., Sharmaa, M., Roland, J., Astafiev, S., Bundya, D., Gaonaa, C.,  Snyder, A., Shulman, G., Leuthardt, C., and Corbetta, M. (2013) Frequency-specific mechanism links human brain networks for spatial attention. PNAS, November 26,  110, 48.

Engel, A.K., Fries, P., & Singer, W. (2001). Dynamic predictions: oscillations and synchrony in top-down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 704-716.

Fries, P. (2005). A mechanism for cognitive dynamics: neuronal communication through neuronal coherence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 474-480.

Lakatos, P., Karmos, G., Mehta, A.D., Ulbert, I., & Schroeder, C.E. (2008). Entrainment of neural oscillations as a mechanism of attentional selection. Science, 320, 110-113.

Luck, S. J. (2005). An Introduction to Event-Related Potentials and Their Neural Origins. In: Luck, S. J. (2005). An introduction to the event-related potential technique. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pages 1-50.

Roach, B.J. & Mathalon, D.H. (2008). Event-related EEG time-frequency analysis: an overview of measures and an analysis of early gamma band phase locking in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 907-926.

Womelsdorf, T. & Fries, P. (2007). The role of neuronal synchronization in selective attention. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17, 154-160.

 
5. Predictive coding
 

Arnal, L.H. & Giraud, A-L. (2012). Cortical oscillations and sensory predictions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, in press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.05.003.

Bendixen, A., SanMiguel, I. & Schrïger, E. (2012). Early electrophysiological indicators for predictive processing in audition: a review. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83, 120-131.

Costa-Faidella, J., Baldeweg, T., Grimm, S., & Escera, C. (2011). Interactions between “what” and “when” in the auditory system: temporal predictability enhances repetition suppression. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 18590-18597.

Garrido, M.I., Kilner, J.M., Stephan, K.E., & Friston, K.J. (2009). The mismatch negativity: a review of underlying mechanisms. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120, 453-463.

Grimm, S., Escera, C., Slabu, L.M., & Costa-Faidella, J. (2011). Electrophysiological evidence for the hierarchical organization of auditory change detection in the human brain. Psychophysiology, 48, 377-384.

Näätänen, R., Astikainen, P., Ruusuvirta, T., & Huotilainen, M. (2010). Automatic auditory intelligence: an expression of the sensory-cognitive core of cognitive processes. Brain Research Reviews, 64, 123-136.

Nelken, I. & Ulanovsky, N. (2007). Mismatch negativity and stimulus-specific adaptation in animal models. Journal of Psychophysiology, 21, 214-223.

Recasens M., Grimm S., Capilla A., Nowak R., Escera C. (2014). Two Sequential Processes of Change Detection in Hierarchically Ordered Areas of the Human Auditory Cortex. Cereb Cortex. 24, 143-153.

Slabu, L., Grimm, S., & Escera, C. (2012). Novelty detection in the human auditory brainstem. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 1447-1452.

 
6. Attention and Working Memory
 

Bledowski, C., Cohen Kadosh, K., Wibral, M., Rahm, B., Bittner, R. A., Hoechstetter, K., et al. (2006). Mental chronometry of working memory retrieval: A combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 821-829.

De Fockert, J. W., Rees, G., Frith, C. D., & Lavie, N. (2001). The role of working memory in visual selective attention. Science, 291, 1803-1806.

Escera, C., Alho, K., Winkler, I. & Näätänen, R. (1998). Neural mechanisms of involuntary attention to acoustic novelty and change. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 590-604.

Lavie, N. (2005). Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75-82.

Ranganath, C., & Rainer, G. (2003). Neural mechanisms for detecting and remembering novel events. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 193-202.

SanMiguel, I., Corral, M.J. & Escera, C. (2008). When loading working memory reduces distraction: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence from an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 1131-1145.

Vogel, E. K., & Machizawa, M. G. (2004). Neural activity predicts individual differences in visual working memory capacity. Nature, 428, 748-751.

Betti, V., Della Penna, S., Pasquale, F., Mantini, D., Marzetti, L., Romani, G., and Corbetta, M. (2013). Natural Scenes Viewing Alters the Dynamics of Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain. Neuron 79, 782–797.

 
7. Sensitive brain
 

Dalgleish, T. (2004). The emotional brain. Nature Reviews Neurosciences, 5, 582-589.

Domínguez-Borràs, J., Trautmann, S., Erhard, P., Fehr, T., Herrmann, M., & Escera, C. (2009). Emotional context enhances auditory novelty processing in superior temporal gyrus. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 1521-1529.

Furl, N., Henson, R.,  Friston, K., and Calder, A., (2013). Top-Down Control of Visual Responses to Fear by the Amygdala. The Journal of Neuroscience. October 30, 2013 • 33(44)

Garcia-Garcia, M., Yordanova, J., Kolev, V., Domínguez-Borràs, J., & Escera, C. (2010). Tuning the brain for  novelty detection under emotional threat: The role of increasing gamma phase-synchronization.  euroimage, 49, 1038-1044.

LeDoux, J. (2012). Rethinking the emotional brain. Neuron, 73, 653-676.

Pessoa, L. (2009). How emotion and motivation direct executive control? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 160-166.

Vuilleumier, P. (2005). How brain beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 585-594.

Vuilleumier, P., Armony, J.L., Driver, J., & Dolan, R. (2003). Distinct spatioal frequency senstivities for processing faces and emotional expressions. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 624-631.

 

 

Competències que es desenvolupen

 

To have the capacity to apply the acquired knowledge and problem solving skills in new or not well known environments in wider or multidisciplinary contexts related to their area of study.
 
To be able to integrate knowledge and face the complexity of formulating judgements from information that, being incomplete or limited, includes reflections about the social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of this knowledge and judgements.
 
To be able to apply information and communication technologies with different goals and purposes (relationship with other professionals, get information, knowledge diffusion…)
 
To be able to search for and evaluate scientific evidence to support statements and professional interventions.
 
To show abilities in the application of data collection and registering techniques in the area of research in behaviour and cognition.
 
To show abilities in the critical evaluation of a scientific research in behaviour and cognition

 

 

 

 

Objectius d'aprenentatge

 

Referits a coneixements


The human brain is with no doubt the most complex existing entity, and understanding its functional organization is an extraordinary challenging task, one that requires the synergetic cooperation of specialists from biology, psychology, medicine, engineering, physics and possibly many others. Hopefully, recent methodological and particularly theoretical advances have made it possible a substantial progress towards the understanding of its organization and function, and how it does allows human behavior. The purpose of the present course is to review these advances to provide the student with a modern, comprehensive view of the human brain function. Also, the roots of these advances will be reviewed so that the student is able to understand why we conceive brain function as we do at present. Finally, it is important to note that this course in not taken from any specific handbook but represents the personal view of its coordinator. An ultimate, practical goal of the course will be to appraise that research into the neural substrates of cognitive functions cannot be approach by merely combining a problem of cognitive science with a method of the neurosciences, but needs be derived from a brain function hypothesis.

 

 

Blocs temàtics

 

1. Cerebral representation

2. Digital neurobiology

3. Subcortical cognition

4. Brain waves

5. Predictive coding

6. Attention and Working Memory

7. Sensitive brain

 

 

Metodologia i activitats formatives

 


As in some other courses of this program, we believe that knowledge networks are more effective when discovered than when taught, and therefore the course is organized as a journey through a series of some the key papers that conform our current understanding of brain function. Through this readings and their discussion, the student should be able to build his/her own perspective on human brain function.
 
The course will be organized during ten consecutive weeks, at a rate of one three-hour session per week. The course will feature some formal lectures by the course staff, but essentially classroom presentations by the students of selected papers of the reference list, discussed as journal club. During the preceding session to the one of the presentation, each student will have to inform the course staff his/her selected paper, for the other students to read it before the session. To select your paper, be sure to read not only the titles but also the corresponding abstracts. The .ppt of each presentation will have to be distributed by email to the teacher and course colleagues preferably in advance to the sessions.
 
Also, a review paper on each topic will be pointed out by the staff as core reading on each topic.


 

 

 

Avaluació acreditativa dels aprenentatges

 


The evaluation of the course will be based on three criteria:
1. Course attendance (20%)
2. Contribution to class presentations (30%) and class discussion on the journal club (10%)
3. Final exam, including specific short or multiple-choice question, and a short opinion assay (40%). The questions will be based both on the review reading of each topic and also on the four papers presented at each of the sessions.