Horology in Islam

Compiled by: S. Brentjes, M. Comes, B. Hashemipour, A. Y. al-Hassan,
D. King, J. Samsó, and R. K. Schwartz

Mercè Comes. “Un procedimiento para determinar la hora durante la noche en la Córdoba del siglo X.” Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islámicos 26 (1993-1994): 263-272.

Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. The Treatise of al-Jazari on Automata: Leaves from a Manuscript of the “Kitab fi ma`arifat al-hiyal al-handasiya” in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Elsewhere. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1924.

A. R Guest. “Review of ‘The Treatise of al-Jazari on Automata: Leaves from a Manuscript of the ‘Kitab fi ma`arifat al-hiyal al-handasiya’ in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Elsewhere,” by Ananda K. Coomaraswamy.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1925): 161-162.

Ahmad Y. al-Hassan and Donald R. Hill. Islamic Technology: an Illustrated History. Paris: UNESCO/Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Donald R Hill, trans. Ibn al-Razzāz al-Jazariī’s The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. Dordrecht/Boston: Reidel Publishing, 1975.
---- ed. and trans. On the Construction of Water-Clocks. Kitab Arshimīdas fi `amal al-binkamat. London: Turner & Devereux, 1976.
----.  A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. La Salle, Ill: Open Court Pub. Co., 1984.
----. “Al-Biruni’s Mechanical Calendar.” Annals of Science 42 (1985): 139-163.
----. “Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East.” Scientific American (May 1991): 100-105.
----. Islamic Science and Engineering. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1993.
----. “Science and Technology in Ninth-Century Baghdad.” In Science in Western and Eastern civilization in Carolingian times, eds. P. L. Butzer and D. Lohrmann, Basel; Boston: Birkhäuser, 1993.
----. Arabic water-clocks. Aleppo: Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo. [In English, 1981; translated into Arabic, 2005]

Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu. Science, technology and learning in the Ottoman empire: Western influence, local institutions and the transfer of knowledge. Aldershot: Variorum [reprinted articles], 2004.

al-Jazari. al-Jami` bayna al-`ilm wa-al-`amal al-nafi` fi sina`at al-hiyal  (A Compendium on the Theory and Practice of the Mechanical Arts). Ed. Ahmad.Y. al-Hassan. Aleppo, Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo, 1979.

al-Jazari.  Fi ma`rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyah (The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices). Trans. Donald R. Hill. Dordrecht/Boston: Reidel Publishing, 1974.

David A. King. World-Maps for finding the direction and distance to Mecca. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1999, pp. 284-292.

Parviz Mohebbi. Techniques et ressources en Iran du 7e au 19e siècle. Tehran: Institut français de recherche en Iran, 1996.

Derek J. de Solla Price. On the origin of clockwork, perpetual motion devices, and the compass. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, 1959.
----. Gears from the Greeks: the Antikythera mechanism, a calendar computer from ca. 80 B.C. New York: Science History Publications, 1975, c1974.
 
Julio Samsó. Las ciencias de los antiguos en al-Andalus. Madrid: Mapfre, 1992, pp. 55-56, 69,  249-257, 442-444.

Aydın Sayılı. The observatory in Islam and its place in the general history of the observatory. Ankara: Turkish Historical Society, 1960, pp. 289-305.

Ivan Stchoukine. “Un manuscrit du traité d’al-Jazari sur les automates du VIIe siècle de l’hegire.” Gazette des beaux-arts. Vol. (6th per.) 11. 1934. pp. 134-140.

Sevim Tekeli. 16’ıncı yüzyılda Osmanlılarda saat ve Takiyüddin’in “mekanik saat konstrüksüyonuna dair en parlak yıldızlar” = The clocks in Ottoman Empire in 16th century and Taqi al-Din’s the brightest stars for the construction of the mechanical clocks.” Ankara: T. C. Kültür Bakanlıgi, 2002.

A. J. Turner. Water-clocks, sand-glasses, fire-clocks. Rockford, Ill: The Time Museum, 1984.

H. J. T. Winter. “Persian science in Safavid times.” In The Cambridge history of Iran, vol.6: the Timurid and Safavid periods, eds. Peter Jackson and Laurence Lockhart. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp. 589-591.

Online:

William Gervase Clarence-Smith. “Science and technology in early modern Islam, c.1450-c.1850.” 66 pages. http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/economicHistory/GEHN/GEHNPDF/ScienceandTechnology-WGCS.pdf 

Paul Horton. “Topkapi’s Turkish Timepieces.” Saudi Aramco World, vol. 28, no. 4 (July/August 1977): 10-13. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197704/topkapi.s.turkish.timepieces.htm