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Learning from giants: Early exposure to advance markets in the growth and internationalisation of Spanish health care corporations in the twentieth century

This article examines the influence of early exposure to advanced markets of the United States and Germany in the growth and internationalization of health care firms from Spain, a late industrialised country. Based on the case studies of the Spanish corporations Grifols and Ferrer, the study shows that early exposure to advanced markets helped them grow in their national markets, and in the world health care industry. It shows further that the specific capabilities developed by both firms were determined by path-dependent networks with scientists and institutions, on the one hand; and strategic alliances, acquisitions and mergers with German and US corporations on the other.


Paloma Fernàndez Pérez

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