Reference 

When a reference is made to a previous mention of a capitalised proper name, the usual practice is to revert to lower case.

Exemple correcte The Erasmus students were taken to Lake Banyoles. When they arrived, the lake was calm and serene.

Exemple correcte The Spanish Civil War was fought between 17 July 1936 and 1 April 1939. The war began after a group of right-wing generals rose up against the Government of the Second Spanish Republic.


However, when the reference is simply a short form of the specific person, organisation, institution or event previously mentioned, capitals are used.

Exemple correcte The Universitat Rovira i Virgili is placing great emphasis on internationalisation. The University is fully aware of the importance of this policy.

Exemple correcte The Spanish Civil War was fought between 17 July 1936 and 1 April 1939. The Civil War became notable for the passion and political division it inspired.


Plural forms that apply one generic term to multiple names should be lowercased because the generic term is merely a descriptor and not part of the proper name.

Exemple correcte Girona and Lleida universities


In order not to repeat the name of a place, writers sometimes use synonyms (or coreferents), which should always be capitalised.

Exemple correcte the New World [America]
Exemple correcte the Big Apple [New York]
Exemple correcte the Pond [the Atlantic Ocean]
Darrera actualització: 26-10-2017
Impressió del capítol | Impressió de la pàgina
Recommended citation:
«Reference» [en línia]. A: Criteris de la Universitat de Barcelona (CUB). Style Guide. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona. Serveis Lingüístics. <https://www.ub.edu/cub/criteri.php?id=2342> [consulta: 18 maig 2021].