Using contractions and truncations 

  • Truncated forms as codes or symbols

    Truncated forms used as codes or symbols do not take points.

    Exemple correcte EN (English)
    Exemple correcte kg (kilogram)


  • Contractions and truncations in Latin

    Latin forms that are full words do not take a point; Latin forms that are not full words do take a point.

    Exemple correcte sic (meaning as was written in the original)


    Exemple correcte et al. (short for et alii meaning and others)


    Exemple correcte no. (short for numero meaning number, with a point in this case to avoid confusion with the word no)


  • Abbreviating people’s names

    Abbreviate people’s first names with a single letter only, followed by a point and a space.

    Philippe Junot
    P. Junot
    Theodore Roosevelt
    T. Roosevelt


    Write multiple initials with points and spaces.

    Elwyn Brooks White
    E. B. White


    Represent compound first names by both initials.

    Joan Manuel Serrat
    J. M. Serrat
    Jean-Paul Sartre
    J.-P. Sartre


    Note, however, that in formal institutional texts like contracts or certificates you should avoid abbreviating people’s first names. For example, M. or M.a should be written out as Maria or María, while J. Ramon should be written out as Joan Ramon or Josep Ramon (for further details, see People in the section on translation).

  • Lower-case abbreviations

    Some common abbreviations are never written in upper case, even at the beginning of a footnote.

    Exemple correcte c. (circa)
    Exemple correcte e.g. (for example)
    Exemple correcte i.e. (that is)

    Exemple correcte l., ll. (line, lines)
    Exemple correcte p., pp. (page, pages)


  • Use of Article

    Note that the word Article may be abbreviated to Art. in footnotes or tables, but should not be abbreviated in running text.

  • Use of etc.

    Only use etc. at the end of a series of examples and never at the end of a series introduced by the words like, for example or such as.
Darrera actualització: 6-2-2018
Impressió del capítol | Impressió de la pàgina
Recommended citation:
«Using contractions and truncations» [en línia]. A: Criteris de la Universitat de Barcelona (CUB). Style Guide. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona. Serveis Lingüístics. <https://www.ub.edu/cub/criteri.php?id=2361> [consulta: 10 maig 2021].