The structural and electronical factors that contribute affinity for the time-dependent inhibition of PGHS-1 by indomethacin, diclofenac and fenamates

TitleThe structural and electronical factors that contribute affinity for the time-dependent inhibition of PGHS-1 by indomethacin, diclofenac and fenamates
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1999
AuthorsPouplana, R, Perez C, Sanchez J, Lozano JJ, Puig-Parellada P
JournalJournal of computer-aided molecular design
Pagination297 - 313
Date Published1999/05//
KeywordsAnimals; Anthranilic Acids/chemistry/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Molecular; Molecular Structure; Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects; Sheep; Static Electricity, Non-Steroidal/chemistry/pharmacology; Crystallography, X-Ray; Cyclooxygenase 1; Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry/pharmacology; Diclofenac/chemistry/pharmacology; Indomethacin/chemistry/pharmacology; Isoenzymes/drug effects; Models
AbstractPGHS-1 and PGHS-2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It appears that the high degree of selectivity for inhibition of PGHS-2 shown by certain compounds is the result of two mechanisms (time-dependent and time-independent inhibition), by which they interact with each isoform. The fenamic acids can be divided into competitive inhibitors of substrate binding and competitive inhibitors that cause time-dependent losses of cyclooxygenase activity. The cyclooxygenase activity was measured by oxygen consumption following preincubation of the enzyme and the inhibitor for increasing periods of time. The rate constants associated with binding inhibition kinetics and structure-activity relationships were calculated for a large number of fenamates, diclofenac and indomethacin. The K1* values are similar but the individual rate constants are markedly different: K1 is two-fold lower, and k2 is six-fold slower for diclofenac than for indomethacin. All the active time-dependent compounds show MEPs with a negative conical surface, with their vertex on the minimum of the carboxyl group, which extends around the first aromatic ring to the central region. The conical surface keeps an open angle of 61 degrees or larger, and a close contact surface with the residues Ala527, Ileu523, Val349, and Ser530, in the zones surrounding the bridging amino group and the chlorine atoms for meclofenamate and diclofenac, or in the region around the carbonyl group for indomethacin. The K1* and IC50 values indicate that the interactions that promote the slow binding kinetics must be examined in relation to the reaction energies of formation (delta Hr) of an ionic bond between the deprotonated carboxylic acid group of acid NSAIDs with the monocationic guanidinum group of Arg120, the free energies of solvation in aqueous solution, and the molecular volumes measured. Presumably indomethacin, diclofenac and meclofenamate cause the enzyme to undergo a subtle conformational change to a form that binds compounds even more tightly, with some slight structural changes confined to reorientations of the Arg277 and Gln358 side chains. These results show that the model has reliably chosen regions of biological significance consistent with both the X-ray crystallographic and kinetic results.