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Exchanging Views
The Viceroys of Naples and the Spanish
Monarchy’s Image in the Baroque
During the two centuries which transpired between the beginning of the 1500s and the early 1700s, the Kingdom of Naples was a possession of the Spanish Empire ruled by powerful viceroys who behaved, by right and de facto, as the monarchs’ alter ego.

Following the unification of Italy (1861), historians tended to consider the viceroys’ rule as the root of Mezzogiorno’s principal problems. This vision has changed in recent decades, in which scholars have highlighted the complexity and diversity of the problems with which the viceroys had to contend.

The multimedia project Sguardi Incrocciati focuses on one of the most visible dimensions of the viceroys’ rule: their activity as patrons of art and culture. The majority of these viceroys were members of the high Castilian nobility, creating, in Naples, one of Europe’s most splendid courts, which aspired to compete with those of the Roman pontiff and even the King of Spain.

The results of this activity can still be perceived, in the urbanism and architecture, civil and religious, in both the capital and the key cities of the provinces. Its consequences reached – and had a remarkable impact – as far as Spain itself. Indeed, at the end of their stay in Naples the viceroys took with them a great quantity of works, such as paintings, sculptures, furniture and books, which they had acquired (at times through means of dubious morality) in the city. Thanks to them, Naples became, in many senses, the true cultural centre of the Hispanic Monarchy.

Many of these pieces came to form part of their private collections. On returning to Madrid or to their home towns, many viceroys built dedicated galleries to exhibit them in their palaces. But their lavish lifestyles meant that on no few occasions they, or their heirs, were forced to sell them in order to settle their numerous debts. As a result, many collections soon became dispersed, with the works of Neapolitan artists ending up in the most unexpected places.

In other cases, the pieces the viceroys sent to Spain were destined for churches and convents under their direct protection. A number of these, even today, represent true Neapolitan microcosms embedded in the heart of the Iberian Peninsula.

The viceroys, however, worked not only on their own collections. One of the missions expected of them was that they would contribute to fulfilling the monarchs’ insatiable thirst for works of art. In some cases, they did so through valuable gifts with which they hoped to obtain some manner of recompense. In others, they acted on the express instruction of their masters, who charged them with procuring works by the most renowned Italian artists with which to decorate their residences. This latter took place most noticeably during the 1620s and 1630s, at which time King Philip IV was building his recreational palace, the Buen Retiro, on the outskirts of Madrid. In this manner, the Italian aesthetic contributed enormously to creating the public image of the Spanish Monarchy.

For the majority of the viceroys, Naples was the final stage of a lengthy journey. On their route towards the kingdom’s capital, many of them carried out a tour of the Italian peninsula, which frequently began in Genoa, occasionally passed through Florence and Venice and almost always involved an important stay in Rome. In fact, before serving the monarchy as viceroys of Naples, many had previously done so as ambassadors to the Holy See. In Rome they had the opportunity to meet some of the most celebrated Italian and European artists of the day and to be infected by the climate of visual effervescence characteristic of the Counter-Reformation.

To reflect the intensity of this circulation of works of art that the viceroys propelled, between Italy and Spain, the project Sguardi Incrociati has been designed as a two-way journey. Through diverse maps and plans, we have attempted to indicate the various sites in which their activity as patrons was evident.

Although the viceroys admired the work of the foremost Italian artists – and, indeed, enthusiastically acquired it – their attitude was not merely passive. Many of them were expert connoisseurs with refined tastes and a very specific idea of what they wished to obtain. Their patronage, therefore, was the result of the intersection between their expectations as patrons and the possibilities of formal language offered by Italian artists, hence the title of this project: Sguardi Incrocciati.

This multimedia project has been carried out by the research group “Poder i Representacions” of the Universitat de Barcelona, in the framework of the European ENBACH project (European Network for the Baroque Cultural Heritage), coordinated by Professor Renata Ago of Rome’s Università “La Sapienza”.

The composition of the 150 files which make up the current project has involved the collaboration of 36 scholars of diverse nationalities, among whom are teachers and researchers from five different European countries.

/STAGES
Click on the titles to unfurl these seventeenth-century maps and explore the most emblematic sites of the Neapolitan viceroys’ rule and patronage.
Church
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THE JOURNEY THROUGH ITALY

For many Spanish ambassadors and viceroys, their mission in Italy was also their first experience abroad. While they would surely already have had previous knowledge of Italian culture, widespread as it was in Spanish churches and palaces, direct contact would undoubtedly have had a considerable impact. The Italian was, in many senses, the dominant culture of the time, both in terms of its creators (architects, painters, sculptors, writers...) and its patrons. Some of the cities they visited simply had no point of comparison – when it came to the magnificence of their churches and palaces – with the Castilian cities they had known (with the exception, perhaps, of Seville and Madrid). Sources repeatedly indicate that during the various stages of their journey these travellers were invited by the local authorities to discover “le curiosità del luogo”, which included not only public and religious buildings, but the interior of the finest private residences where, on occasion, they were accommodated.

If they wished to be respected on this Italian stage, the Catholic king’s agents would have to make an additional effort to compete on the battlefield of symbolism. The preparations for travel, along with the magnitude of their entourage and the quantity of their possessions, often quite colossal, were clear indicators of the importance given to this dimension of their journey. The sheer volume of belongings which accompanied them created no small number of logistical problems, in terms of both their transport and their security. They caused, in addition, a vivid impression in the cities through which they passed.

Although there was no predetermined route to their destinations of Rome and Naples, certain general patterns can be perceived. Some of the towns and cities their journey took them through en route to their destination (Genoa, Venice, Florence, Civitavecchia...) were for these men a true epiphany, allowing them to discover new behavioural guidelines which they would later incorporate into their own code of conduct. In certain phases of their journey, they purchased diverse objects, received gifts and came into contact with artists from whom they commissioned various works.

Pieter van der Aa, Tabula Geographica quae Continet Totam Fere Europam et Proxima Africae In usum Historiae Recentioris (1710)
Lugduni Batavorum [Leyden]: apud Petrum vander Aa, cum Privilegio, 1710.

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SPANISH ROME

Given its status as the seat of Christianity and caput mundi, Rome had a particularly powerful significance for the Catholic Monarchy. It was the stage upon which the key matters of international politics were resolved and, of course, the home of the pope, who Spaniards would forever perceive in a dual role: as the Successor of Peter, but also as a temporal prince whose interests were frequently at odds with their own.

While theoretically ruled by the pontiff, Rome was in many respects an international city, in which diverse nations competed among themselves to establish their supremacy in the symbolic sphere. As early as the late Middle Ages, Spanish monarchs had attempted to carve out their own space in the Eternal City. The concept of churches and national cardinals is particularly instructive in understanding the magnitude of this rivalry.

To make headway in Rome, it was imperative that one gain the favour of the cardinals and local princes. To this end, diplomatic gifts were combined with the application of pressure to obtain their cooperation.

From the first decades of the seventeenth century, it became clear that to compete in this symbolic battle it was essential to have a fixed base of operations: that is, a palace able to compete with the cardinals’ residences and, above all, with the Palazzo Farnese occupied by the ambassadors of the King of France. It soon became apparent that the home rented from the Colonna family, on Piazza Santi Apostoli, was insufficient to fulfil this function. The Count of Monterrey was the first to occupy the Palazzo Monaldeschi which, in time, came to serve as Spain’s palace in Rome.

Naturally, the primary target of this strategy of symbols was the pontiff himself. The papal audiences – above all, the initial audiences in which the ambassadors presented their credentials – were therefore the object of painstaking preparation, sometimes even before the ambassadors’ departure from their own court. Without a doubt, however, the most dazzling ceremonial moment was the offering of the Chinea, which, while strictly a tribute of vassalage by the Kingdom of Naples, was exploited to showcase the might of the Catholic king and his representatives.

This stage will attempt to locate the Spaniards’ diverse spheres of activity in Rome, in terms of both the city’s physical spaces and the ceremonies which took place within them.

Battista Falda, Pietro Aquila, Nuova pianta et alzata della città di Roma con tutte le strade, piazze et edifici (1710-1713)
Roma, Archivio Storico Capitolino

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THE IMAGE OF THE MONARCHY IN THE KINGDOM

The Kingdom of Naples was much more than just its capital. It was the Italian peninsula’s most extensive territory, stretching from the limits of the Papal States to the Strait of Messina: a world heterogeneous from a geographical and social viewpoint, and one of paramount importance to the Spanish rulers, both through its strategic positioning relative to the Turkish menace and through its contribution, in men and in money, to the maintenance of the monarchy.

The aim of this stage will be to widen the commonly held conception of the Reame to include cities and territories which played a key role in terms of economics, politics or culture. A number of these cities harboured important artistic, cultural and symbolic heritages.

To achieve this goal we will investigate the circulation of messages between centre and periphery, through the donations destined for the decoration of the most important centres of worship (from San Nicola in Bari, San Domenico in Soriano Calabro and the tombs of the apostles Matthew and Andrew to Salerno and Amalfi) as well as through the diffusion of the royal image (as with the series of monuments to Charles II), while reflecting on the role of the bishops who, above and beyond the requirements of their religious mission, acted as true royal agents in the control of the territory.

Joan Blaeu, Reino de Nápoles. De Theatrum orbis terrarum, sive Atlas novus in quo tabulae et descriptiones omnium regionum. Pars tertia

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NAPLES AND THE VICEROY

Until the beginning of the seventeenth century, Naples was Europe’s largest urban area, and the setting for the sharpest of social contrasts. Legions of the underprivileged lived alongside the opulence of a barony which numbered among the richest, most ancient nobilities of the entire continent.

The city was also home to the greatest European concentration of churches and palaces, with an abundant clergy and an elevated presence of religious orders, some of whose convents and monasteries were organised like true islands within its urban fabric.

A vast number of ministers, meddlers, and underpaid soldiers, the latter clustered in the Quartieri and frequently in conflict with the local population, combined to make Naples “the richest and most vice-filled city there ever was in the whole world”, as Miguel de Cervantes described it: a social magma, as unstable as the lavas of Vesuvius, at constant risk of unrest thanks to the inefficacy of its numerous justice tribunals. This was the underworld which Caravaggio knew well and which he portrayed in La siete obras de misericordia.

In addition, this was the stage upon which the Spanish viceroys must carry out their mission. The two great fortresses of Castel Sant’Elmo and Castel Nuovo were intended to control the city, rather than to defend it. The viceroys, however, did not content themselves with this. Theirs was not exclusively a military command, and one of their earliest battles concerned the symbolic control of the urban landscape: from urban reforms to the construction of palaces, from sponsoring churches to the brilliance of ceremonial. This control, however, was a slippery goal, which frequently escaped their grasp, as Naples had its own ceremonial activity which the viceroys were not always able to control. In their favour, on the other hand, was an established monarchic tradition which had, since the time of the Angevins and the Aragonese, made Naples one of the most splendid courts in Europe.

To achieve this objective, they made use of the city’s intense, deep-rooted cultural and artistic activity, which they themselves helped to propel. As has been highlighted, some of the Spanish viceroys in Naples can be counted among the greatest artistic patrons of their era. Yet this was not simply a question of personal tastes: one of their chief responsibilities was to provide the royal court with cultural resources which would contribute decisively to forging the public image of the King of Spain.

Alessandro Baratta, Fidelissimae urbis neapolitanae cum omnibus viis accurata et nova delineatio aedita in lucem ab Alexandro Baratta MDCXXVIIII (1629)
Napoli, Gallerie d’Italia - Palazzo Zevallos Stigliano, Collezione Intesa Sanpaolo

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INSIDE THE PALAZZO REALE

The palace in which they resided constituted a key part of the viceroys’ strategy for consolidating their authority, in the difficult war they must wage against the religious orders, local elites and, ultimately, the masses, for the control of symbols.

In the early seventeenth century it became clear that neither the fortress of Castel Nuovo, nor the palace built by Ferdinando Manlio at the behest of Pedro de Toledo, in which the viceroys had lived during the previous century, were adequate for their representational necessities. As the local writer Giulio Cesare Capaccio understood perfectly, this was the main reason behind the 6th Count of Lemos charging Domenico Fontana, the former papal architect, with the building of a new palace.

Fontana designed a building on the basis of the viceroys’ ceremonial requirements. In accordance with this idea, this stage traces a route through the palace’s main rooms and the activities which took place within them: the various rooms used for public audiences, culminating in pictorial cycles designed to transmit a number of very precise messages; the royal chapel, with its meticulous arrangement of space and the paraphernalia of worship; the gallery, which housed the viceroys’ private collection and was the site of government meetings at the highest level; the private rooms of the viceroys’ families; the festive and theatrical activities; and the meetings of the academies promoted by certain viceroys.

While the interior of the palace was painstakingly crafted to satisfy the viceroys’ representational needs, the exterior was by no means less so: in both its location, directly accessible from the port, and in its facade, conceived as a backdrop for the immense stage that was the Largo di Palazzo, which would in time become the principal site of the public ceremonies organised by the viceroys.

Pianta del piano nobile di Palazzo Reale (prima metà del XVIII secolo)
Napoli, Archivio di Stato di Napoli.

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THE VICEROY'S LEGACY IN SPAIN

For the majority of the viceroys, the Neapolitan experience entailed coming into contact not only with rich cultural and artistic local traditions, but also with the culture of antiquity and the grand Italian art to whose shaping and dissemination they themselves contributed in their capacity as patrons.

Many of the Spanish viceroys in Naples expended a good part of their energies in the promotion and acquisition of works of art, with no expense spared in pursuing this goal. They often experienced their Neapolitan episode as a unique occurrence, and exploited it to the fullest. A considerable part of the results of this activity remained in the city itself, but a certain amount was sent to Spain.
Many viceroys returned from their missions with their ships loaded with pieces, sometimes acquired through means of dubious morality.

The presence of Italian art in Spain has already been the focus of numerous studies, beginning with the work of Alfonso Pérez Sánchez. Our attention will centre upon the Neapolitan viceroys’ role in this artistic flow, and the fates which awaited these works. We are interested in the works themselves, but even more so in their context and the missions assigned to them.

Once in Spain, these pieces were distributed among palaces, churches and convents (some of these founded by the viceroys themselves), thereby influencing the tastes and outlooks of their contemporaries, as was highlighted in the work of so many Spanish artists of the era. It is, in fact, difficult to understand the Golden Age without taking this into account.

One of the least-known aspects of this traffic, which in our exhibition will have particular prominence, is the fate of those pieces which were destined for religious institutions, often cloistered convents and monasteries: pieces which, for that very reason, have in many cases remained beyond the reach of the general public and scholars alike. We will attempt to create a map showing the distribution of these works throughout Spain’s geography.

Of course, these pieces served also to exalt the figures of the viceroys themselves and their various lineages. In their Spanish palaces, particularly those in Madrid, some created entire galleries of Italian paintings and artworks.

Nova et accurata Tabula Hispaniae Praecipuis Urbib[us]Vestitu, Insignib[us] et Antiquitatibus exornata (1623)
Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España.

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THE VICEROYS AND THE NEAPOLITAN ART AT THE COURT

Of the artworks sent to Spain by the viceroys of Naples, the finest pieces were primarily reserved for royal residences and foundations. Some of them had been commissioned directly by the monarchs, while others were the result of the generosity of their ministers, who attempted in this manner to win the favour of their masters. Nor was there any lack of examples which ended up in the hands of the Crown as a result of what Jonathan Brown has described as “compulsory donations”.

Without a doubt, the Palacio del Buen Retiro was the most favoured site of all, although the halls of El Alcázar, the diverse rooms of El Escorial and convents and monasteries such as Las Decalzas Reales and La Encarnación also received works of the highest quality.

As a whole, these works made an important contribution to shaping the public image of the Monarchy of Spain and to moulding the tastes and lifestyles of the upper nobility.

This stage will also depict the transformations experienced by the Spanish viceroys’ residences following their visits to Naples, many of which were considered among the most sumptuous in the court by the observers of the day. On their return, no few viceroys – driven by a desire to perpetuate their memory – founded or sponsored religious establishments which they enriched with pieces acquired during their sojourns in Italy.

The viceroys of Naples were also the reason so many painters, sculptors, architects and musicians travelled to Spain, where they carried out an intense activity that directly influenced the techniques of local artists.

Pedro Texeira, Topographia de la villa de Madrid descrita por don PedroTexeira (1656)
Madrid, Museo de Historia de Madrid

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/VICEROYS
Browse the gallery and discover the biographies of the 28 viceroys and lieutenants who ruled the Kingdom of Naples in the seventeenth century.
/CHRONOLOGY
The seventeenth century of the Neapolitan viceroys, marked by the succession of the different governments.
Move the cursor horizontally to discover the century's key events and the deeds described in this exhibition.
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
Death of King Philip II,
succeeded by Philip III
1598
The Duke of Lerma,
new royal favourite
1598
1599
Marriage of Philip III
to Margaret of Austria
1599
 
1600
Domenico Fontana begins
construction of the Palacio Real
1600
 
1601
 
1602
 
1603
Visit to Naples by the
Duke of Mantua, Vincenzo Gonzaga
1603
 
1604
 
1605
 
1606
 
1607
Caravaggio
to Napoles
1607
 
1608
 
1609
 
1610
 
1611
 
1612
 
1613
 
1614
 
1615
Wedding of Prince
Philip of Spain
(future Philip IV)
and Elisabeth of France
1615
Inauguration of the Palazzo
dei Regi Studi
1615
 
1616
 
1617
Fall of the
Duke of Lerma
1617
 
1618
Start of the
Thirty Years' War
1618
 
1619
 
1620
 
1621
Death of Philip III.
Succeeded by his son Philip IV
1621
 
1622
Canonisation of S. Teresa of
Jesus, S. Ignatius of Loyola,
S. Francis Xavier y
S. Isidore the Labourer
1622
Founding of the
Convento de Monforte de Lemos
1622
Guido Reni
a Nápoles
1622
The Count-Duke of Olivares
is named favourite
1622
 
1623
 
1624
 
1625
Death of
Giovan Battista Marino
1625
 
1626
 
1627
Creation of the
Acueducto de Carmignano
1627
The first works are sent
for the decoration of the
Palacio del Buen Retiro
1627
 
1628
 
1629
 
1630
Visit to Naples by
Infanta Maria of Hungary,
Philip IV's sister
1630
Velázquez
to Naples
1630
Artemisia Gentileschi
moves to Naples
1630
 
1631
Domenichino
to Naples
1631
 
1632
 
1633
 
1634
Giovanni Lanfranco
to Naples
1634
 
1635
Spanish victory
at the Battle of Nördlingen
1635
 
1636
Laying of the cornerstone
of the Convento de
las Agustinas de
Salamanca
1636
 
1637
 
1638
 
1639
 
1640
Eruption of the Catalan
Revolt and the
Portuguese Restoration War
1640
 
1641
 
1642
 
1643
The Count-Duke of Olivares
leaves the court
1643
Spanish defeat
at the Battle of Rocroi
1643
 
1644
Death of Queen
Elisabeth of France
1644
 
1645
 
1646
Death of the infante
Balthasar Charles
1646
 
1647
Masaniello's
Revolt
1647
Acquisition of Rome's
Palazzo di Spagna
by the Count of Oñate
1647
 
1648
6 April.
End of the Revolt
of Naples
1648
Peace of Westphalia
1648
 
1649
Renovations begin
on the Palazzo Reale
1649
Second marriage of Philip IV,
to Mariana of Austria
1649
 
1650
Velázquez's second
journey to Italy
1650
Performance of the
first opera in Naples
1650
Restorative campaign
of Puertolongón
and Piombino
1650
 
 
1651
 
1652
Presentation of the
Sala de los Virreyes
1652
 
1653
 
1654
 
1655
Opening of the new Capuchin
convent in Toledo
1655
 
1656
Epidemic of plague
in Naples
1656
 
1657
The first works are sent
for the new decoration
of El Escorial
1657
 
1658
Celebrations for the
birth of the
infante Philip Prospero
1658
 
1659
Treaty of the Pyrenees
1659
 
1660
 
1661
Birth of
Charles II
1661
Construction begins on
the Convento de Santa
María de Loreto de
Peñaranda de
Bracamonte
1661
 
1662
Opening of the
Chiesa di
Santa Maria del Pianto
1662
 
1663
 
1664
Acquisition of the
Serra collection
1664
 
1665
Death of Philip IV,
Mariana of Austria's regency in the name
of Charles II
1665
Presence of 3 ex-viceroys
of Naples on the
Consejo de Regencia
1665
 
1666
 
1667
Opening of the
Ospedale de San Pietro e
San Gennaro dei Poveri
1667
 
1668
End of the Portuguese
Restoration War
1668
Obelisk of
Charles II in Avellino
1668
Inauguration
of the new inner harbour
1668
 
1669
 
1670
Pedro of Antonio's
embassy of obedience
in Rome
1670
 
1671
 
1672
 
1673
New tomb of
Alfonso the Magnanimous
in Poblet
1673
 
1674
Start of the
Messina Revolt
1674
 
1675
End of Mariana of
Austria's regency.
Ascent to the throne of
Charles II
1675
 
1676
Monuments to
Charles II in Capua y
and L'Aquila
1676
 
1677
 
1678
 
1679
Nuptials of
King Charles II and
Marie Louise of Orleáns
1679
Death of
John of Austria the Younger
1679
Works completed on the
enlargement of the Convento
de Cocentaina
1679
 
1680
 
1681
 
1682
 
1683
 
1684
 
1685
 
1686
 
1687
 
1688
 
1689
Matrimony between
King Charles II and
Mariana of Neuburg
1689
 
1690
 
1691
 
1692
Luca Giordano's
journey to Madrid
1692
 
1693
 
1694
 
1695
 
1696
Death of Queen
Mariana of Austria
1696
 
1697
The Epitaph in Foggia
1697
 
1698
 
1699
 
1700
Death of Charles II,
coronation of
Philip V of Spain
1700
Conspiracy of Macchia
in Naples
1700
 
1701
 
1702
Royal visit
by Philip V
1702
Luca Giordano's
return to
Naples
1702
 
1703
 
1704
 
1705
 
1706
 
1707
The Austrian
viceroyalty begins
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
/CREDITS
Virtual exhibition created thanks to the Culture Programme 2007-2013, financed by the European Union.
The work has been carried out by the University of Barcelona’s research group “Poder y Representación”, in the framework of the European ENBACH project (European Network for the Baroque Cultural Heritage).
/AUTHORS
Thanks and acknowledgements:

For the provision of images for the exhibition:
Archivio di Stato di Napoli
Archivio Storico Capitolino
Archivo General de Simancas
Biblioteca Nacional de España
Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli
Collezione Intesa Sanpaolo - Palazzo Zevallos Stigliano
Compton Verney
Galleria Colonna
Galleria Nazionale di Parma
Musée d’art moderne de Saint-Etienne Métropole
Museo de Historia de Madrid
Museo di Capodimonte
Museo di Roma
Museo di San Martino
Museo Nacional del Prado
National Motor Museum, Beaulieu
Palazzo Reale di Napoli
Universitat de Barcelona - Biblioteca de Reserva
Conservatorio de musica "San Pietro a Majella", Nápoles
Monforte de Lemos, Museo de Arte Sacro Madres Clarisas
Museo Abbaziale di Montevergine
Museo Arqueológico Nacional
Museo Diocesano Napoli Donnaregina
Museo del Tesoro di San Gennaro

For their advice during the various phases of the exhibition’s creation:
Renata Ago
Attilio Antonelli
Giovanni Muto
José Vicente Quirante
Renato Ruotolo

For the translation of texts:
Carlos González Reyes
Davide Jodar van Vlijmen
Ana Minguito Palomares
Montserrat Molina Egea
Diego Sola Garcia
Milena Viceconte
Fernando Sánchez Marcos

By designing the web:
Didradesign
  • Diana Carrió-Invernizzi
    Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)
    COMISARIA
    Avellino
    Cabalgata en Roma de Pedro Antonio de Aragón
    Santa Maria Egiziaca a Pizzofalcone, Nápoles
    Ospedale dei Santi Pietro e Gennaro, Nápoles
    Palacio de Pedro Antonio de Aragón , Madrid
    Monasterio de Poblet
    El puerto y la dársena de Nápoles
    San Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Roma
    San Pietro in Montorio, Roma
    San Francesco di Paola, Roma
    Catedral de Toledo
    El convento de las Capuchinas de Toledo
    Tumbas reales en San Domenico Maggiore, Nápoles
    Viaje de Pascual y Pedro Antonio de Aragón
  • Ida Mauro
    Universitat de Barcelona
    COMISARIA
    Basilica di San Nicola, Bari
    Cappella Palatina, Nápoles
    Cappella del Tesoro di San Gennaro, Nápoles
    Castelnuovo, Nápoles
    Chiaia, Nápoles
    Convento de Peñaranda de Bracamonte
    Convento de Santo Domingo, Soriano
    Descalzas Reales, Madrid
    Encarnación, Madrid
    Fiesta de la víspera de San Juan, Nápoles
    La Huerta Almirante/San Pascual del Prado, Madrid
    L'Aquila
    Largo di Palazzo, Nápoles
    Lecce
    Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial
    Palazzo Traetto, Nápoles
    Poggioreale
    Posillipo
    Pozzuoli
    Procida, Ischia
    Procesión de los Quattro Altari, Nápoles
    Sala dei viceré de Palazzo Reale, Nápoles
    San Francesco Saverio/San Ferdinando, Nápoles
    San Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Nápoles
    San Ginés, Madrid
    Santa Isabel, Madrid
    Santa Maria del Pianto, Nápoles
    Solitaria (procesión Semana Santa), Nápoles
    Taranto
  • Joan Lluís Palos Peñarroya
    Universitat de Barcelona
    COMISARIO
    Palazzo Reale Vecchio, Nápoles
    Planta de Palazzo Reale, Nápoles
    Salones de Palazzo Reale, Nápoles
    Galeria de Palazzo Reale, Nápoles
    Lugarteniente Cardenal Zapata
  • Milena Viceconte
    Doctor en Historia del Arte
    COMISARIA
    Amalfi, cripta de Sant'Andrea
    Colegiata de Osuna
    La Vicaria, Nápoles
    León, capilla Guzmán
    Palazzo Donn'Anna, Nápoles
    Santa Teresa de Jesús, Madrid
    Salerno, cripta de San Matteo
  • Roberto Alonso Moral
    Legado Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez. Fundación Focus-Abengoa. Sevilla
    AUTOR
    Esculturas napolitanas a las Agustinas Recoletas de Salamanca
    Esculturas napolitanas en San Ginés, Madrid
  • Attilio Antonelli
    Soprintendenza per i beni architettonici, paesaggistici, storici, artistici ed etnoantropologici per Napoli e Provincia
    AUTOR
    Fachada Palazzo Reale
    El Maestro de Ceremonias
    El parque de Palazzo Reale
  • Francesca Barbieri
    Università Cattolica di Milano
    AUTORA
  • Ciro Birra
    Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
    AUTOR
    Vista de Nápoles de Alessandro Baratta
  • Martine Boiteaux
    École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales
    AUTOR
    Fiesta de la Resurrección en Piazza Navona, Roma
  • Silvia Canalda i Llobet
    Universitat de Barcelona
    AUTORA
    Santa Maria di Monserrato, Roma
  • Sara Caredda
    Universitat de Barcelona
    AUTORA
  • Alfredo Chamorro
    Doctor en Historia
    AUTOR
  • Luigi Coiro
    Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa
    AUTOR
    Solitaria, Nápoles
    San Blás, Lerma
    San Diego, Valladolid
  • Leticia de Frutos
    Consejera técnica. Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte
    AUTORA
    La Huerta del Almirante de Castilla, Madrid
    Palacio del Marqués del Carpio, Madrid
    Piazza di Spagna, Roma
    Venecia
  • Antonio Denunzio
    Intesa Sanpaolo. Beni archeologici e storico artistici
    AUTOR
    Regalos a los virreyes
  • José María Dominguez
    Universidad de La Rioja
    AUTOR
    Alessandro Scarlatti
    Francesco Paolo Capoccio
    Matteo Sassano, Matteuccio
    Tarantella de Caresana
  • Manuel Fernández del Hoyo
    Doctor en Historia
    AUTOR
  • Vittoria Fiorelli
    Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa, Napoli
    AUTORA
    Eremo de Suor Orsola Benincasa, Nápoles
  • Joana Fraga
    CHAM - Centro de História d'Aquém e d'Além-Mar / Portuguese Centre for Global History
    AUTORA
    Torreón del Carmine, Nápoles
  • David García Cueto
    Universidad de Granada
    AUTOR
    Santuario de Loreto
  • Giovanni Gargiulo
    Abbazia di Montevergine
    AUTORA
    Abadía de Montevergine
  • Carlos González Reyes
    Universitat de Barcelona
    AUTOR
  • Gabriel Guarino
    University of Ulster
    AUTOR
    Cabalgatas en Nápoles
  • Miguel Hermoso Cuesta
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid
    AUTOR
    El Real Alcázar de Madrid
    Luca Giordano en el Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial
    San Antonio de los Portugueses, Madrid
  • Sabrina Iorio
    Doctor en Historia del Arte
    AUTORA
    Fuentes en Nápoles
  • Ana Minguito Palomares
    Doctor en Historia
    AUTORA
    Escalera monumental de Palazzo Reale, Nápoles
    Palacio del Conde de Oñate, Madrid
    Palazzo di Spagna, Roma
    Presidios toscanos
    Palazzo dei Regi Studi, Nápoles
    Sala Regia de Palazzo Reale, Nápoles
    Teatro San Bartolomeo, Nápoles
    Lugarteniente Beltran de Guevara
  • María Jesús Muñoz González
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid
    AUTORA
    Convento de Cocentaina
  • Laura Palumbo
    Universitat de Barcelona
    AUTORA
  • Ángel Rivas Albaladejo
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid
    AUTOR
    La Chinea, Roma
    Convento de la Maddalena, Nápoles
    Convento de las Agustinas, Salamanca
    Palacio de Monterrey, Madrid
    Viaje conde de Monterrey
    Madrid, Palacio del Buen Retiro
  • Renato Ruotolo
    Historiador del Arte
    AUTOR
    Conventos españoles en Nápoles
    Puertas de la ciudad de Nápoles
  • Manuela Sáez González
    Doctora en Historia del Arte
    AUTORA
  • Fernando Sánchez Marcos
    Universitat de Barcelona
    AUTOR
    Lugarteniente Juan José de Austria
  • Diego Sola
    Universitat de Barcelona
    AUTOR
    Gaeta
    Sevilla, Casa de Pilatos
  • Giulia Veneziano
    Conservatorio di Musica "San Pietro a Majella"- Napoli
    AUTORA
    Pio Monte de la Misericordia, Nápoles
    San Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Nápoles
    Música en la Real Cappella, Nápoles
    Música en el Teatro di Corte, Nápoles
  • Piero Ventura
    Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
    AUTOR
    Santo Spirito dei Napoletani, Roma
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