Verbs expressing objectives and outcomes in course guides

The lists below are adapted from the University of Worcester’s “Principles for course design: Guide to writing learning outcomes and developing assessment criteria“ . Keep them to hand when you are writing learning objectives and outcomes in English and when you need to be precise about exactly what skills will be assessed in exams and coursework.

  • Verbs giving evidence of knowing

    define
    list
    outline
    relate
    describe
    match
    present
    reproduce
    extract
    measure
    recall
    select
    identify
    name
    record
    state
    label
    organize
    recount
    write


  • Verbs giving evidence of comprehension

    clarify
    estimate
    indicate
    recognize
    classify
    exemplify
    infer
    report
    compare
    explain
    interpret
    represent
    contrast
    express
    justify
    rewrite
    defend
    find
    perform
    summarize
    discuss
    formulate
    predict
    translate
    distinguish
    generalize
    present


  • Verbs giving evidence of application of knowledge or understanding

    apply
    demonstrate
    modify
    relate
    assess
    employ
    operate
    select
    change
    explicate
    predict
    show
    choose
    illustrate
    produce
    solve
    compute
    manipulate
    prove
    use


  • Verbs giving evidence of analysis

    analyse
    diagnose
    identify
    recognize
    break down
    differentiate
    illustrate
    relate
    categorize
    distinguish
    infer
    resolve
    compare
    divide
    justify
    select
    conclude
    elucidate
    outline
    separate
    contrast
    evaluate
    point out
    criticize
    examine
    question


  • Verbs giving evidence of synthesis

    account for
    enlarge
    plan
    revise
    alter
    explain
    prepare
    select
    argue
    formulate
    present
    suggest
    arrange
    generalize
    propose
    summarize
    assemble
    manage
    reconstruct
    synthesize
    construct
    modify
    relate
    write
    derive
    order
    reorganize
    design
    organize
    report


  • Verbs giving evidence of creativity

    begin
    devise
    imagine
    pattern
    create
    elaborate
    initiate
    plan
    design
    engender
    invent
    produce
    develop
    generate
    make
    state


  • Verbs giving evidence of evaluation

    appraise
    conclude
    determine
    justify
    assess
    contrast
    discriminate
    question
    choose
    criticize
    evaluate
    rate
    compare
    defend
    judge
    rationalize

Universitat de Barcelona. Serveis Lingüístics
Darrera actualització: 5-10-2023
Recommended citation:
«Verbs expressing objectives and outcomes in course guides» [en línia]. A: Llibre d’estil de la Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona. Serveis Lingüístics. <https://www.ub.edu/llibre-estil/criteri.php?id=3527> [consulta: 12 abril 2024].